Kūfa is located in the south of Iraq, 10 Kilometers northeast of Imam Ali's shrine in Najaf and it is the second city built by Muslims. It was chosen as the capital by Imam 'Ali (a) in 36/656-57, where he was martyred. Most of Shi'a Muslims were from Kufa in the 1st/7th century. The great Mosque of Kufa and al-Sahla Mosque are among the main historical buildings of the city. Sciences such as fiqh, hadith, and Arabic syntax were prominent and routinely taught in this city.
Kufa played a role in the Battle of Karbala; Imam al-Husayn (a) headed toward this city following the invitation letters sent by its residents. A large portion of the army who fought with Imam al-Husayn (a) was also from Kufa. At the beginning of Abbasid rule, Imam al-Sadiq (a) traveled to this city a few times and provided lessons.
A great position has been depicted for Kufa in Shi'a hadiths. It is considered as the center of Imam al-Mahdi's (a) government after his reappearance. The importance of Kufa is mostly related to the 1st and 2nd century of Islam, because once the Imam Ali's (a) grave was revealed to the shias, and Najaf was expanded, Kufa gradually lost its importance and position, while Najaf gained the prominence instead.
According to hadiths, people were living in Kufa in pre-Islamic era but it was destroyed later. According to a narration, Prophet Noah (a) (Nuh) has built his arch in Kufa where his people were worshiping idols.
Its reconstruction is attributed to Muslims. Basra and Kufa are regarded the first cities which were built by Muslims. It is said that Kufa was a permanent military camp of Muslim army in the time of their conquests. In 15/636-7, 17/638, or 19/640 when Muslim army were getting depressed, 'Umar b. al-Khattab ordered Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas to find an appropriate place for Arab soldiers to settle in. Sa'd chose a region by the bank of the Euphrates River near Al-Hirah. Sa'd ordered to build a mosque and Dar al-'Imara on high hills of Kufa.
Establishment of Kufa was a strategic necessity for Muslims' conquests in the time of the Second Caliph. On their way to conquer Iran, Arab soldiers, led by Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, needed to settle in a place near the battlefields. Therefore, Second Caliph ordered to build a military base in Kufa for Muslim army. Gradually Arab and Persian families, mostly military forces, have migrated to Kufa; which made the city increasingly expand and flourish. Arab and Persian people were settling in Kufa, Arabs were the people who established the city and Persian were regarded as the second important element for establishing the city.
Unlike Mecca and Medina which originally have Arab settlers, Kufa contained a variety of different races. After Kufa was founded, about fifteen to twenty thousand people emigrated there from other regions. 'Umar b. Sa'd has categorized the population of Kufa in seven groups:
In the time of the conquests of Arabs, most of Arab tribes migrated to Kufa were from Yemen. Most of Yemeni tribes, especially Hamdan, were Shi'a and followers of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a). As reported, Hamdan was a dominant and leading tribe of Yemen who were faithful followers of Imam 'Ali (a). Also the tribe of Tay who fought alongside 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) in the Battle of Jamal and Siffin, were another influential supporting tribe of Imam.
Asha'riyyun was another immigrant tribe from Yemen, who supported Imam 'Ali (a). However when al-Hajjaj b. Yusuf came to power, he prosecuted Shi'a Muslims, then Asha'riyyun migrated to Qom, where they settled and developed Shi'ism in Iran.
After the Battle of Karbala, the captives and the head of Imam al-Husayn (a) were taken to Dar al-Imara (the house of emir) for 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad. Lady Zaynab (a) and Imam al-Sajjad (a) both had debate with 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad.
Moreover, al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi settled in Dar al-Imara of Kufa, where the heads of the murderers of the Battle of Karbala were brought to him.
In the Time of Imam Ali (a)
In 36/656-657, 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), set out for Kufa with one thousand soldiers from Medina, while twelve thousand soldiers from Kufa came to welcome him. Also in the Battle of Jamal, majority of people of Kufa supported Imam 'Ali (a); the city became the capital of Imam 'Ali's caliphate.
Reasons of the Appointment as the Capital
- Financially Medina or Hijaz could not afford to challenge Iraq or Syria, while Iraq was enjoying its rich sources of income.
- Regarding the number of people, Medina could not afford to face a massive battle, while Kufa was a crowded city, it was even near other teeming regions, so they could easily face a battle.
- A number of people of Medina, particularly several companions were not keen on supporting 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), as they considered themselved in the same level with Imam. On the other hand, people of Kufa cherished Imam 'Ali (a).
- People of Medina got used to welfare under the caliphate of the previous caliphs so much that they had lost their passion and hunger to fight for Islam; only twenty five years after the demise of Prophet Muhammad (s). Gradually people sidestepped spiritual and otherworldly teachings of Prophet (s).
- Compared to other cities, most of Companions of Prophet Muhammad (s) were settling in Kufa.
In the Time of Umayyads
With the victories made in Iran and Transoxiana in Umayyad period, Kufa became the political and military capital of Umayyad in Mesopotamia and the center for controlling different regions so that the ruler of Iraqayn (Basra and Kufa) was also considered the true ruler of Iran. Therefore, the political and military significance and thus the economic growth of Kufa increased. The influence of this economic development was greatly seen at the time of Khalid b. 'Abd Allah al-Qusari so that by his order, many markets were built and there were shops allocated for every branch of traders and the rent revenue of these financial centers was used for soldiers' affairs, because at that time, ten thousand soldiers were in Kufa.
Event of Karbala
After the death of Mu'awiya, many of Shi'a nobles and common people sent letters to Imam al-Husayn (a) and invited him to rule Kufa and promised to support him. So Imam al-Husayn (a) daparted Mecca toward Kufa. 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, governor of Barsa, was appointed as governor of Kufa by Yazid. Muslim b. 'Aqil tried to hide in the house of Hani b. 'Urwa. But spies of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad found out about him and he tortured and imprisoned Hani. When Muslim b. 'Aqil learned about the incident, he tried to attack 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad with the people who took oath of allegiance to him, but they gradually left Muslim b 'Aqil alone and he was killed by teh order of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad.
When 'Umar b. Sa'd was appointed as the leader of army by 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad. He marched toward Karbala with four thousand soldiers to fight against Imam al-Husayn's army. Gradually waves of soldiers joined 'Umar b. Sa'd, so that in the sixth of Muharram he had an army of twenty thousand soldiers against Imam al-Husayn (a).
People of Kufa were in different groups in the time of the battle of Karbala:
- Shi'a: Shi'a had a significant population of Kufa but harsh treatment of Ziyad and his son, 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, had frightened them so they wouldn't participate in an event unless they were sure of the victory.
- Supporters of Banu Umayya: 'Amr b. al-Hajjaj, Yazid b. al-Harith al-Shaybani, 'Amr b. Hurayth, 'Abd Allah b. Muslim, and 'Umar b. Sa'd were the main leaders of Banu Umayya supporters in Kufa. After twenty years they were financially and socially the superior group among other tribes in Kufa.
- Doubters: They were influenced by beliefs of Kharijites. Although they did not join them, they were doubtful and cynical about religion.
- Al-Hamra': As al-Tabari said, they were twenty thousand fighters from different races, who were living during the time of Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a). They would create bloodbath for money and rewards.
- Neutrals: Those people of Kufa were hugely interested in worldly benefits, gained most in the battle of Karbala. As they were sure army of Imam al-Husayn (a) would lose the battle, they joined 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad and fought against Imam (a).
In the most difficult conditions of Umayyad period, one fourth to one third of the people of Kufa have been Shia. This made Umayyad government increase its surveillance over this city and was always ready to suppress any possible uprising there. In that period, some Shia uprisings were made against Umayyads.
- Tawwabun Uprising: This is the first of Shi'a uprisings after the event of 'Ashura, demanding vengeance for Imam al-Husayn's (a) blood, in the 65/684. Muslims and those devoted to Ahl al-Bayt (a) participated in this uprising to confront the army of Syria in 'Ayn al-Warda, under the leadership of Sulayman b. Surad al-Khuza'i and other prominent Shi'ite figures such as Musayyib b. Najaba al-Fazari, Rifa'a b. Shaddad al-Bajali, 'Abd Alllah b. Wa'il al-Tamimi, and 'Abd Allah b. Sa'd al-Azdi. Their army of several thousands marched towards a place called Nukhayla, chanting their slogan, "ya la-tharat al-Husayn" (Arabic: یا لثارات الحسین, lit.: O, the avengers of al-Husayn). However, Sulayman b. Surad was disappointed when a large group of Shi'as, specifically the people of Basra and al-Mada'in, broke their promise to take part in the rise. After four days of fighting, many of the Tawwabun were killed. Their leaders were killed one by one and the few remaining soldiers were encircled. They had no choice but to retreat under the leadership of Rifa'a b. Shaddad al-Bajali.
- Uprising of al-Mukhtar: After the defeat of Tawwabun, the remaining soldiers retreated to Kufa. Al-Mukhtar, who was imprisoned at the time, sent a letter to the family of the dead to express his sympathy to them and also a letter to Rifa'i b. Shadad. They told al-Mukhtar they are ready for any upcoming rise. Al-Mukhtar was freed from prison with intermediation of 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar. Afterward he publicly declared his intention. Majority of Shi'a prominent figures of Kufa including, 'Abd al-Rahman b. Shurayh, Sa'id b. Munqid, Sa'ar b. Abi Sa'ar, Aswad b. Jirad al-Kindi, Qudamat b. Malik vowed to support al-Mukhtar. In order to arouse the Alawites to support him, al-Mukhtar used "ya la-tharat al-Husayn" (Arabic: یا لثارات الحسین, lit.: O the avengers of al-Husayn) and "ya mansur amit" (Arabic: یا منصور امِت, lit.: O the victor, kill) as his motto. Then he attacked Kufa and gained control over the city; and expelled the Zubayrid governor of Kufa. He managed to kill Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan, Khawli b. Yazid, 'Umar b. Sa'd, and 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad in his rise. In addition, a number of them fled to Basra and joined Mus'ab b. al-Zubayr.
- Rise of Zayd b. 'Ali: Zayd was the son of Imam al-Sajjad (a), and was a companion of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a). He was a pious, virtuous and a generous faqih. Fifteen thousand Shi'as joined him and encouraged him to launch a rebellion against Banu Umayya, but most of them left him alone. In the battle he was martyred by an arrow that pierced his forehead, and his rebellion came to an end.
Governors from the Foundation to al-Mukhtar's Uprising
- Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas: He was appointed as the governor of Kufa by 'Umar b. al-Khattab. He was also in charge of Kufa in time of 'Uthman b. 'Affan, but he was removed from office by him later.
- 'Ammar b. Yasir: He was appointed by 'Umar b. al-Khattab.
- Al-Mughira b. Shu'ba: He was appointed by 'Umar b. al-Khattab but 'Uthman b. 'Affan replaced him. In the time of Mu'awiya, he was appointed as the governor of Kufa again, where he died in 50/670-671.
- Al-Walid b. 'Uqba: 'Uthman replaced Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas with al-Walid b. 'Uqba.
- Sa'id b. al-A's: He was appointed in charge of Kufa in place of al-Walid b. 'Uqba by 'Uthman. Later people of Kufa expelled him out of Kufa in 34/654-655. They sent a letter to 'Uthman requesting Abu Musa al-Ash'ari as their governor. Finally 'Uthman agreed with their request.
- Abu Musa al-Ash'ari: He was appointed as the governor of Basra by 'Umar b. al-Khattab in 17/638. Then he was discharged by 'Uthman. After Sa'd b. al-A'as was eliminated from his palace by the people of Kufa. They sent a letter and asked 'Uthman to appoint Abu Musa as the governor and he consequently agreed. When 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) came to power, Abu Musa was appointed in charge again. However in the time of the Battle of Jamal, Imam 'Ali (a), asked people of Kufa to attend the battle, but Abu Musa prevented them to do so, then Abu Musa was removed from his office by Imam 'Ali (a).
- 'Uqba b. 'Amr: 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) appointed him as his deputy in the time of the Battle of Siffin.
- 'Ammar b. Shihab: He was Imam 'Ali's governor in Kufa in 36/656-657.
- Ziyad b. Abih: Mu'awiya has appointed him as the governor of Basra and Kufa where he was in charge until his death in 53/673.
- Al-Dahhak b. Qays: After the death of Ziyad b. Abih, Mu'awiya has appointed al-Dahhak in charge of Kufa. He invited people to take oath of allegiance to 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr. He fought against Marwan b. al-Hakam and finally was killed in 65/684-685.
- 'Abd Allah b. Khalid: He was appointed as the governor by Mu'awiya.
- Sa'd b. Zayd: He was a member of Khuza'a tribe and he was appointed as the governor by Mu'awiya.
- 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Abd Allah: He was the son of Umm al-Hakam, the sister of Mu'awiya. 'Abd al-Rahman was appointed as the governor by his uncle, Mu'awiya. People of Kufa banished him due to his misconducts.
- Nu'man b. Bashir: He was the last one appointed by Mu'awiya as the governor of Kufa.
- 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad: He was appointed as the governor by Yazid b. Mu'awiya. At that time Muslim b. 'Aqil came to Kufa in order to invite people to support al-Husayn b. 'Ali (a) in 60/679-680.
- 'Amr b. al-Hurayth: He was appointed as the representative by Ziyad b. Abih in the time of his absence in the city. Later he was also the representative of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad.
- 'Amir b. Mas'ud: After the death of Yazid b. Mu'awiya, Amir b. Mas'ud was chosen as governor of Kufa by its people. When 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr came to power, he retained him as the governor.
- 'Abd Allah b. Yazid: 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr appointed him as the governor of Mecca, later he became the governor of Kufa.
- 'Abd Allah b. Muti': He was appointed as the governor by 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr. In the uprising of al-Mukhtar he was defeated and came back to Mecca.
- Al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi: After defeating 'Abd Allah b. Muti', al-Mukhtar became the governor of Kufa. When al-Mukhtar went to al-Mada'in he left Sa'ib b. Malik al-Asha'ri in charge of his palace.
- Musa'b b. al-Zubayr: He was appointed as the governor of Basra by 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr in 67/686-687, later he defeated al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi and became the ruler of Kufa.
In the Time of Abbasids
It is said that in the first years of the Abbasid government, Imam al-Sadiq (a) was summoned to Iraq by al-Saffah and al-Mansur and for a while stayed in Kufa. In that period, he (a) taught and explained Islamic teachings and fought the opinions of Ghulat (exaggerators).
In the Abbasids period, Kufa gradually lost its political and military and then economic significance. At the time of the second Abbasid caliph, the political power of Abbasids was lost and Kufa was seriously damaged and destroyed following the attacks of Bedouin tribes from Arabian Peninsula, especially Qaramita and the tribes of Shimr and Khafaja. Ibn Jubayr, the Muslim travel logger who visited Kufa in 580/1184-85, described it as following,
- Kufa is a big old city which has suffered many destructions and its destructions are more than its buildings. One of the causes of the destruction of Kufa was Khafaja tribe in the neighborhood of Kufa who always attacked the city.
Governments like Buyids and Seljuk did not want to reconstruct and develop the city, especially because its political, military, economic, and even religious significance was moved to Baghdad which was built in 145/762-63 by al-Mansur, the Abbasid ruler.
- Uprising of Ibn Tabataba: Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Tabataba was among the descendants of Imam al-Hasan (a) who went from Medina to Kufa and collected an army with the help of Abu l-Saraya who was one of the rebellious commanders of Abbasids and an agent of Harthama b. A'yan. In 199/814-15, they attacked Kufa and took over the city.
- Uprisings of Ali b. Zayd and 'Isa b. Ja'far: These two people who were among the descendants of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a) made an uprising in Kufa in 255/869. Al-Mu'tazz sent a great army led by Sa'id b. Salih and suppressed their uprising.
- Uprising of Ali b. Zayd b. al-Hasan: He was among the descendants of Imam al-Husayn (a) and made an uprising in Kufa at the time of al-Muhtadi. Shah b. Miykal went to fight him with a great army, but he was defeated. When al-Mu'tamid reached power, he sent Kayjur al-Turki to fight him. After chasing and escaping for a while, Ali b. Zayd was killed in 257/871.
- Emergence of Qaramita: Most historical reports mention the emergence of Qaramita to the activities of an inviters following Isma'ilis called Hamdan b. al-Ash'ath known as Qarmat who began his preaching in Kufa. In 317/929, Qaramita attacked Mecca and took al-Hajar al-Aswad with them. In 339/950-51, when they brought it back to Mecca, first they took it to Kufa and hung it to the seventh pillar of the mosque of Kufa so that people see it.
Great Mosque of Kufa
- Main article: Great Mosque of Kufa
The mosque of Kufa was among the first buildings founded by Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas in Kufa. 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) delivered his speeches and made judgments there; where it is currently named Dakkat al-Qada'. Also Imam 'Ali (a) was martyred there by Ibn Muljam al-Muradi.
The Mosque of Kufa is regarded superior to all other mosques save for Masjid al-Haram and al-Masjid al-Nabawi, since Imam al-Mahdi (a) will make judgments there. Travelers are allowed to say their prayers normally or in travelers' prayer fashion (salat al-qasr).
This mosque was built in the first/seventh century by Arab tribes of Kufa, about two kilometers north west of the mosque of Kufa. This mosque is one of the oldest mosques attributed to the twelfth Imam (a) and thus according to some narrations, the place he (a) will live after re-appearance will be there.
Islamic Sciences and Arts in Kufa
'Ilm al-Nahw (Arabic syntax) and 'Ilm al-Sarf (Arabic Morphology) have two main schools of thought: School of Basra and School of Kufa. Their prominent figures had numerous disagreements from the early stages. Al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin in the first volume of A'yan al-Shi'a says, Shi'ite scholars of Kufa and Basra were the founders of 'Ilm al-Nahw and they spread and promoted it through Basra and Kufa.
Instructions of Arabic syntax were invented and arranged for the first time in Basra while a century later another school of thought was founded in Kufa and disagreed with Basra school of thought.
Khalil b. Ahmad al-Farahidi, the author of the book al-'Ayn, was the prominent figure of Basra school of thought on 'Ilm al-Nahw. He was the master of Sibawayh in 'Ilm al-Nahw who described and expanded this knowledge. Al-Kasa'i was the main figure of Arabic syntax and Lughat (lexicography) in the school of thought of Kufa; he was the most knowledgeable person on Arabic syntax.
People of Kufa supported Banu 'Abbas in their rebellion against Banu Umayya, so Banu 'Abbas supported them against people of Basra. They invited scholars from Kufa in order to train and educate their children.
In the last years of Imam al-Sadiq (a) lifetime, Shi'ite fiqh school moved from Medina to Kufa and revived fiqh in the city. Al-Buraqi wrote in his book Tarikh al-Kufa (The History of Kufa): "One hundred forty eight companions of Prophet Muhammad (s) migrated to Kufa, also about thousand men from Tabi'un and faqihs have moved there. In the meantime, Imam al-Sadiq (a) migrated to Kufa in the time of al-Saffah and he lived there for some years. Meanwhile Umayyads has declined and 'Abbasids was trying to come to power. The situation was appropriate for Imam al-Sadiq (a) in order to preach Shi'ism and its fiqh." As al-Hasan al-Washa' said that he visited the mosque of Kufa in which about nine hundred hadith narrators were speaking of hadiths they heard from Ja'far b. Muhammad (a)."
Aban b. Taghlib, a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a) has narrated about thirty thousand hadiths from him, also Muhammad b. Muslim has narrated about forty thousand hadiths from Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a). Hafiz Abu 'Abbas al-Kufi (b. 333/944-945) has written a book on Rijal in which he has mentioned the names of four thousand narrators, all narrated hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a). All of these activities were based on Imam al-Sadiq (a). As a result, Mansur al-Dawaniqi was fearful of faqihs and people, he ordered Imam (a) to move to Baghdad.
Characteristics of Kufa School of Fiqh
- Inscription of hadiths was regarded highly important in this era, which was started in the time of Imam al-Baqir (a) and reached its peak in the time of Imam al-Sadiq (a), as he eagerly encouraged his companions to record and inscribe hadiths. As Abu Basir quoted from Imam al-Sadiq (a): "Inscribe (hadiths and knowledge), as you are not able to memorize knowledge unless you write it down."
- In addition a number of new ideas and topics have been raised which were not answered in the Holy Qur'an. They were not answered by narrations and hadiths collected by Sunni scholars also and people were not able to refer and ask them from Ahl al-Bayt (a) due to the situation of society. As a result, Sunni scholars clung on Qiyas (deductive analogy), istihsan (juristic preference), ra'y (opinion) and conjecture (guess).
- Narrators were reporting hadiths differently and a large number of hadiths were narrated from Shi'a Imams. Even hadiths were narrated in totally opposite fashion, on the same subjects. Therefore, several narrators asked Imams how to differentiate authentic hadiths. 'Alajiyya hadiths are stated in order to solve such debatable hadiths.
- Different schools of fiqh such as Hanbali, Shafi'i, Maliki, and Hanafi appeared. On the other hand Ahl al-Bayt (a) school of fiqh were the minority among others and due to the situation of society they were forced to practice taqiyya (religious dissimulation).
- Qualifications of ijtihad and conclusion of Shari'a laws such as istishab (presumption of continuity), bara'a, ihtiyat (precaution), takhyir, etc. were introduced in this era. Sometimes narrators had to travel long distances and they were not able to visit Imams in order to ask them the raised questions as a result they were obligated to practice ijtihad and reach an answer from Shari'a laws according to principles of fiqh.
Sunni school of Hadith founded in Kufa in the time of territory expansions of Muslims by the second caliph, 'Umar b. al-Khattab. When Kufa was founded and a number of Companions of Prophet Muhammad (s) migrated there, hadiths of Prophet Muhammad (s) have spread and interpreted. The school of hadith of Kufa is regarded as important as the school of hadith of Medina, while they were opposing each other.
Characteristics of Kufa School of Hadith
- Dynamism and rationalism: As Shi'a Muslims dealt with oppositions in disputes regarding fiqh and kalam, it made the school dynamic and active.
- The large number of hadith narrators and the role of Shi'a Imams: According to narrations, significant number of Shi'a hadiths narrators have been living in Kufa. Shi'a Muslims of Kufa were the first group of Imam al-Baqir (a)'s students led by Al A'yan. They made efforts in preaching and spreading Ahl al-Bayt (a)'s teachings in Kufa. In addition, Shi'a Muslims of Kufa regularly visited Imam al-Sadiq (a), and hadith narrators learnt and narrated hadiths from him individually or in groups. As stated in the book Rijal of Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, the main hadiths narrators of Imam al-Sadiq (a) were from Kufa.
- The presence of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and agents of Imams in Kufa: The two years in which Imam al-Sadiq (a) migrated to Kufa in the time of Abu l-'Abbas al-Saffah was massively fruitful for Shi'ism and also non-Shi'a hadith narrators and also in teaching students. As 'Abbasids were having their early years in power, they were focused on the permanence of their government, as a result they were not able to concentrate on activities of Imam al-Sadiq (a). As quoted, Abu Hanifa said about himself: "If those two years had not been I would have been perished."
- Codification and inscription of books on hadiths: Codification and writing qualitative and quantitative noteworthy hadiths sources is a prominent feature of hadiths narrators of Kufa. The majority parts of 6600 books which are mentioned in Wasa'il al-Shi'a by al-Hurr al-'Amili were written by hadith narrators of Kufa; they were mostly arranged by early Twelver Shi'a scholars who were living in the time of Shi'a Imams. All these books resulted in the famous books called al-Usul al-Araba'ami'a.
Square and geometric Kufic script has a rectangular style with angles and straight lines. It was used as the main script of Arabs for many years in writing letters and Qur'ans. It was also seen on Dirham and Dinar coins. In the beginning Kufic script did not have dots and diacritics. Since in early Islam, Muslims have memorized the Holy Qur'an and they learnt it from Prophet Muhammad (s), as a result it was transmitted to other generations via learning from teachers orally. However after the first half of the first century, Arabs were mixed with other races and minorities which caused mispronunciations and misunderstanding in reading and memorizing the Holy Qur'an. As a result Abu l-Aswad al-Du'ali was the first person to appoint Arabic diacritics in order to ease the process of writing and memorizing Qur'an.
Emergence of Religious Sects
The hadiths which have described Kufa are categorized in different groups:
- Hadiths which introduced Kufa as Qubbat al-Islam (Tower of Islam).
- Hadiths which described the features and blessings of mosques of Kufa, especially the Great Mosque of Kufa.
- Hadiths which mentioned the significance of living in Kufa rather than living in Mecca and Medina.
- Hadiths which mentioned the significance of soil of Kufa and people of Kufa.
- Hadiths which mentioned elimination of misery from Kufa.
- Hadiths stating those who enter Kufa with evil intentions, will be avenged by God.
- Hadiths which introduced Kufa as the city of Imam 'Ali (a).
- Hadiths which claimed God created Shi'a Muslims by the soil of Kufa and Kufa is a city settled by Shi'a Muslims.
- Hadiths which introduced Kufa as a garden which is part of Heaven's gardens.
- Hadiths in which Kufa is cherished by Prophet Muhammad (s) and Imams (a).
Shi'ite Knowledgeable Families in Kufa
Knowledgeable families of Kufa were:
In the Era of Reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a)
According to a number of narrations, Kufa will be the capital of caliphate of Imam al-Mahdi (a) which will be the center of attention of the whole world. Imam al-Sadiq (a) was asked about the place that Imam al-Mahdi (a) will settle in and also the place that Muslims will gather around in the time of reappearance, he expressed: "Kufa will be the capital of his caliphate, the Mosque of Kufa will be the place for judgment, the al-Sahla Mosque will be the treasury house while hills of Najaf will be the place for worshiping and praying."
Imam al-Baqir (a): "Imam al-Mahdi (a) will re-emerge in a time when three groups are fighting each other in Kufa, he will easily enter the city and deliver his speech, while people are crying out of joy so that they would not understand Imam's speech."
After the Time of Reappearance
In the time of reappearance, when Imam al-Mahdi (a) will found a worldwide government based on justice and freedom, he will choose Kufa as his capital, which will expand with a 110 kilometer diameter.
When Kufa become the capital of Imam's government, all Muslims will gather around there as it is described in hadiths:
- "There will be a day in which all Muslims are gathered in Kufa or they desire it". "All Muslims will gather around Kufa before the Judgment Day."
- According to Raj'a (return) narrations, Kufa will be the capital of descendants of Ahl al-Bayt (a) in the government of Imam al-Mahdi (a). As al-Mufaddal narrated a lengthy hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) on the departure of Imam al-Husayn (a): "Imam al-Husayn (a) has set out for Kufa with his army and flags, when the majority of people gather around in Kufa and it is chosen as the military base of Imam."
- In other hadiths regarding different ways of the Raj'a of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) especially in the time of Imam al-Husayn's governance. It is said Imam 'Ali (a) will meet Siffin companions about one hundred thousand companions in Siffin, thirty thousand of them are from Kufa. It is mentioned that Najaf will be the capital of the government of Imam 'Ali (a) in Raj'a era.
- When Euphrates' water is split so that it reaches allies of Kufa, Shi'a Muslims are prepared for reappearance.
- Oh, Jabir, reappearance will not take place before a massacre between Hira and Kufa did not happen yet.
- Sufyani army will enter Kufa and kill everybody. Then they leave Kufa in order to slay all descendants of Ahl al-Bayt (a) and all Shi'a Muslims. So they will send an army toward Kufa and they will slay and hang a large number of Shi'a Muslims.
- Maqdisī, Aḥsan al-taqāsīm, vol. 1, p. 181.
- Majlisī, Ḥayāt al-qulūb, vol. 1, p. 271.
- Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 123-124.
- Ṣafarī Furūshānī, Kufa az piydāyish tā ʿĀshūrā, p. 34-35.
- Barāqī, Tārīkh-i Kūfa, p. 119.
- Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 124.
- Jaʿfarī, Tashayyuʿ dar masīr-i tārīkh, p. 142.
- Jaʿfarī, Tashayyuʿ dar masīr-i tārīkh, p. 127.
- Jaʿfarī, Tashayyuʿ dar masīr-i tārīkh, p. 128-131.
- Fayyāḍ, Piydāyish wa gostarish-i Shīʿa, p. 80.
- Jaʿfarī, Tashayyuʿ dar masīr-i tārīkh, p. 142.
- Barāqī, Tārīkh-i Kūfa, p. 261.
- Karīmān, "Kūfa", vol. 14, p. 245.
- Karīmān, "Kūfa", vol. 14, p. 245.
- Sayyid b. Ṭāwūs, al-Luhūf, p. 190-193.
- Balādhurī, Anasāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 235.
- Jaʿfarī, Tashayyuʿ dar masīr-i tārīkh, p. 107.
- [Naṣiḥ Sutūdih, ʿIlal antikhāb Kūfa. http://library.tebyan.net/fa/Viewer/Text/63914/1]
- Yaʿqūbī, al-Buldān, p. 149.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 37-39.
- Balādhurī, Anasāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 80-81.
- Shaykhīyān, "Raftār shināsī mardum-i Kūfa", p. 456-457.
- Jaʿfarīyān, Aṭlas-i Shīʿa, p. 361.
- Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 6, p. 66.
- Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 6, p. 20-23.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 171.
- Barāqī, Tārīkh-i Kūfa, p. 308-311.
- Thaqafī, al-Ghārāt, vol. 2, p. 850-856.
- Ibn Jubayr, Safar nāmih Ibn Jubayr, p. 259.
- Iīzadī, "Jughrāfīyā-yi tārīkhī-yi Kūfa", p. 82.
- Ibm al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 7, p. 302.
- Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 4, p. 94.
- Ibm al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 7, p. 239-240.
- Ibد al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 7, p. 447.
- Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 11, p. 223.
- Ṭabāṭabāʾī Yazdī, ʿUrwat al-wuthqā, p. 201.
- Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 53, p. 11.
- Ṭabāṭabāʾī Yazdī, ʿUrwat al-wuthqā, p. 347.
- Barāqī, Tārīkh-i Kūfa, p. 466.
- Karīmī nīyā, "Tārīkh-i fiqih wa ḥuqūq", p. 46.
- Jabbārī, "Nigāhī bi makātib ḥadīthī-yi Shīʿa", p. 59.
- Ṣafarī Furūshānī, Kūfa az piydāyish tā ʿĀshūrā, p. 327-330.
- Rajabī, Kūfa wa naqsh-i ān dar qurūn-i nukhustīn, p. 475-486.
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