'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib
ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: عبداللّه بن عبدالمُطَّلِب), is the father of the Prophet Muhammad (s), as the historians had said, in the vow of 'Abd al-Muttalib to sacrifice one of his sons for Allah, his name was drawn, but at last 100 camels slaughtered in his place. He passed away, before –or according to some narrations, a little after- the birth of his son, the Prophet Muhammad (s). Unlike Sunni scholars, most of the Shi'a scholars believe that he was a monotheist.
|'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib|
Father of the Prophet (s)
|Full Name||'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib b. Hashim|
|Teknonym||"Abu Qasham", "Abu Muhammad", and "Abu Ahmad"|
|Epithet||"Dhabih" (the sacrifice)|
|Well-known Relatives||the Prophet (s), 'Abd al-Muttalib, Abu Talib, Amina|
|Place of Birth||Mecca|
|Place of Residence||Mecca|
|Death/Martyrdom||Few months after the Prophet's birthday|
|Burial Place||"Dar al-Nabigha"|
|Known for||chosen as the sacrifice of 'Abd al-Muttalib|
Lineage, epithets, and agnomen
'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib b. Hashim was the last son of 'Abd al-Muttalib. 'Abd Allah, Abu Talib (the father of Imam 'Ali (a)), Zubayr and 5 of the daughters of 'Abd al-Muttalib was from one mother; their mother was Fatima bt. 'Amr b. 'A'idh al-Makhzumi; one of the 5 Fatimas in the lineage of the Prophet (s).
His epithet is "Abu Qasham", "Abu Muhammad", and "Abu Ahmad"; and his agnomen was "Dhabih" (the sacrificed).
|Family tree of the Prophet (s)|
When 'Abd al-Muttalib was digging for the Zamzam well, he had only one son; after he discovered the Zamzam well, Quraysh opposed his ownership of the well, and stated that they must have a share of the well. When he saw that he had only one son in order to defend himself, made a vow that if Allah will give him 10 sons, he will sacrifice one of them in the way of Allah, by Ka'ba. When his son's count reached 10; he draw lot in order to choose one of his sons to be sacrificed and the name of 'Abd Allah became drawn. But people opposed the slaughter. So they decided to draw between 10 camels and 'Abd Allah, if the 10 camels became drawn, they will be slaughtered in place of him, if 'Abd Allah became drawn, 10 more camels are added, and the draw is repeated. At last, when the count of camels reached 100, the camels were drawn, 'Abd al-Muttalib repeated the lot three times and in all of them the camels were drawn; after 'Abd al-Muttalib became sure that Allah had accepted the camels in place of 'Abd Allah, 100 camels slaughtered in place of 'Abd Allah and given to the poor.
In the day of sacrifice, after the sacrifice of the camels, 'Abd al-Muttalib went straight to Wahb b. 'Abd Manaf, who was the head of the Banu Zuhra tribe, and married his daughter, Amina bt. Wahb, to 'Abd Allah. She was one of the greatest women of Quraysh.
According to some, the marriage took place after a year from the sacrifice.
Some of Sunni scholars recognized him as a pagan, but most of the Shi'a scholars believe that he, and all of the ancestors of the Prophet (s) to Adam (a), were believers in God and were monotheists.
Imam al-Sadiq (a) says: "Jibra'il (Gabriel) came to Muhammad and said: O Muhammad, God sends his regards to you and says: "I have withheld the fire of hell from the loin begot you and the womb bore you and the skirt raised you; the loin is the loin of 'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib and the womb beared you is Amina bt. Wahb and the skirt raised you is the skirt of Abu Talib -and according to Ibn Faddal- and Fatima bt. Asad".
A little after his marriage, 'Abd Allah went to Syria with the trade caravan of Quraysh, in the way back he became ill and stayed in the Banu 'Adi b. Najjar tribe in Yathrib, when the caravan of Quraysh reached Mecca and 'Abd al-Muttalib asked them about 'Abd Allah, sent his eldest son, Harith, to Yathrib, but when he reached Yathrib, 'Abd Allah had passed away.
'Abd Allah demised in his 25, between the uncles of his father, in the tribe of Banu Najjar, in a house named "Dar al-Nabigha".
Most of the historians believe that he demised before the birth of the Prophet (s); but al-Ya'qubi referring to a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a), considered his demise 2 months after the birth of the Prophet (s), also Al-Kulayni chose this opinion, and also mentions the opinion of a year after the birth of the Prophet (s).
'Abd Allah's Tomb
According to historical sources, the burial place of 'Abd Allah and a number of other graves were located in an area of Medina known as "Dar al-Nabigha" which is today part of Masjid al nabawi after its westward expansion. The majority of scholars do not doubt that he died in Medina, and as is well-known, his grave is located in an area that later came to be known as "Dar al-Nabigha". Photos of this location have survived. Today, it is located inside Masjid al-Nabi. Na'ib al-Sadr al-Shirazi visited the place in 1305/1887 and cited Turkish poems that were inscribed on it. According to these poems, the grave had a dome and a building which were constructed in 1245/1829. According to ancient sources, the burial place of 'Abd Allah turned into a mosque, and according to hadiths, the Prophet (s) said prayers there, visiting his father's grave. The Egyptian Ibrahim Pasha Raf'at said in his book that the grave was adjacent to al-Baqi' cemetery and had a darih.
In addition to Na'ib al-Sadr al-Shirazi, Persian authors, Farhad Mirza and Sayyid Isma'il Marandi and a number of travel writers, introduced the mausoleum of 'Abd Allah as a mausoleum of Medina. Although Wahhabis destroyed all mausoleums inside and outside al-Baqi' after they took over Medina, the building of the mausoleum of 'Abd Allah survived until 1976.
Visiting the grave of 'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib is considered as a recommended action.
- Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil, vol.2 p.33
- Ibn Hisham, Al-Sira, vol.1 p.103
- Majlisi, Bihar, vol.12 p.122
- Ibn Hisham, Al-Sira, vol.1 p.156
- Ayati, Tarikh-i payambar, p.42
- 'Amili, Al-Sahih, vol.2 p.75
- Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.1, p. 446.
- Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil, vol.2 p.10
- Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol.1 p.439
- Majlisi, Bihar, vol.15 p.125
- Ja'fariyan, Athar-i islami Makkih wa Madinih, p.352
- Ibn Athir. 1385/1965. Al-Kamil fi al-tarikh. Beirut: Dar Sadir
- Ibn Hisham. 1375/1996. Al-Sira al-nabawiyya. Tehran: Kitabchi publication
- Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir al-. n.d. Bihar al-anwar li durar akhbar al-a'imma al-athar. Dar ihya' al-turath al-'arabi
- Ayati, Muhammad Ibrahim. 1378/1999. Tarikh-i payambar-i islam (s). Tehran: Tehran university
- 'Amili, Sayyid Ja'far Murtada. 1427/2006. Al-Sahih min sira al-nabi al-a'zam. Beirut: Al-Markaz al-islami liddirasat
- Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub al-. Al-Kafi.