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Sahaba
'Uthman b. Maz'un
Al-Baqi'-1.jpg
Al-Baqi' Cemetery
Personal Information
Full Name 'Uthman b. Maz'un b. Habib b. Wahb al-Jumahi
Teknonym Abu Sa'ib
Well-Known Relatives The Prophet (s) (foster-brother)
Muhajir/Ansar Muhajir
Place(s) of Residence Mecca, Medina, Abyssinia
Death/Martyrdom 2/624
Burial Place Al-Baqi' Cemetery
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas Battle of Badr
Migration to AbyssiniaMedina

Abū Sāʾib, ʿUthmān b. Mazʿūn b. Ḥabīb b. Wahb al-Jumaḥī (Arabic: عثمان بن مظعون بن حبيب بن وهب الجمحي) (d. 2/623), one of Sahaba and foster brother of the Prophet (s). He was among the first Muslims. He, his brother, 'Abd Allah b. Maz'un, and his son, Sa'ib, were present in Migration to Abyssinia, Migration to Medina, and the Battle of Badr. 'Uthman was a pious man and a close companion of prophet Muhammad (s) and Imam Ali (a). Imam Ali (a) named one of his sons after him.

He was the first Emigrant to be buried in al-Baqi'. The Prophet (s) marked his grave with a stone and visited it. The Prophet (s) buried his children: Ibrahim, Ruqayya, and Zaynab next to him.

Contents

Lineage

His kunya is Abu Sa'ib. His mother was Sukhayla bt. 'Anbas b. Uhban b. Hudhafa b. Jumah.[1] His wife was Umm Hakim, Khawla bt. Hakim al-Ansari.[2] After the demise of Lady Khadija (s), Khawla suggested the Prophet (s) to marry Aisha and Suda.[3] Later (after that 'Uthman passed away), she offered herself to the Prophet (s).[4] 'Abd al-Rahman[5] and Sa'ib[6] are her sons.

His sister, Zaynab, was the wife of 'Umar b. al-Khattab; so 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar, Hafsa and 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Umar are his nephews and niece.[7]

Embracing Islam

'Uthman b. Maz'un has forbidden drinking wine on himself during the ignorance time before the emergence of Islam.[8] He, along with Abu 'Ubayda and Arqam b. Abi Arqam embraced Islam at the presence of the Prophet (s).[9] Ibn Ishaq says, "he converted to Islam after the [first] thirteen Muslims."[10]

Emigration

'Uthman is one of the emigrants to Abyssinia and Medina. After the Emigration to Medina, the Prophet (s) recited 'aqd al-ukhuwwa (bond of brotherhood) between him and Ibn al-Tayyihan;[11] also between him and 'Abbas b. 'Ubada, who was later martyred in the Battle of Uhud.[12]

Sunnis have regarded 'Uthman b. Maz'un along with other great figures such as Hamza b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, Ja'far b. Abi Talib and Ali b. Abi Talib (a) as the twelve disciples of Prophet Muhammad (s).[13]

'Uthman, his son, Sa'ib,[14] and his brother, 'Abd Allah,[15] emigrated to Abyssinia and to Medina and participated in the Battle of Badr.[16] Sa'ib was martyred in the Battle of Yamama at his thirties.[17] 'Uthman has composed some poems about emigration to Abyssinia.[18] Returning from Abyssinia, he entered Mecca under the safe conduct of Walid b. Mughira; but when he saw that other Muslims are being tortured, he asked Walid to nullify his safe conduct so that he become like other Muslims. Although he was tortured by polytheist of Mecca he expressed his happiness for this.[19]

Status

'Uthman b. Maz'un was one of the great companions of the Prophet (s) and a very pious person. He fasted the days and spent the nights worshiping.[20] After the burial of his children, Ibrahim, Zaynab and Ruqayya next to 'Uthman b. Maz'un's grave, the Prophet (s) said, "They joined their righteous predecessor, 'Uthman b. Maz'un."[21]

'Uthman was one of close companions of Imam Ali (a) as well. Imam 'Ali (a) called him as his brother, and also named one of his sons after him.[22] Ziyarah al-Nahiya al-Muqaddasa reads: "Peace be upon 'Uthman b. Ali, 'Uthman b. Maz'un's namesake."[23]

Demise

He was the first Muhajir (Emigrant) to pass away in Medina in 2/624 (22 months after the arrival of the Prophet (s) in Medina), and was buried in al-Baqi'.[24] According to Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, some reported that he passed away after the Battle of Badr - 30 months after the arrival of the Prophet (s) in Medina.[25] Probably the different reports about his demise date originate in a disagreement between Muhajirin and Ansar about the first companion of the Prophet (s) buried in al-Baqi': Ansar believed that As'ad b. Zurara, who was present in both Pledges of al-'Aqaba and passed away before the Battle of Badr was the first companion buried in al-Baqi';[26] while Muhajirin believed that it was 'Uthman b. Maz'un.[27]

After his demise the Prophet (s) kissed between his eyes and said, "What a good predecessor was 'Uthman b. Maz'un for us."[28]

Tomb

'Uthman b. Maz'un was buried in the middle of al-Baqi' cemetery. The Prophet (s) marked his grave with a stone and visited it.[29] This stone was on his grave until the time of Mu'awiya's reign,[30] then it was put on 'Uthman b. 'Affan's grave - which was later added to al-Baqi' - by Mu'awiya's order.[31]

Other great figures were buried near 'Uthman b. Maz'un's grave. Recent sources reported that there was a shrine and a dome over his grave; but there is no information about the sponsor or the time of building that shrine. Concerning the similarity between the Darih of the infallible Imams buried in Baqi' and the Darih of 'Uthman b. Maz'un's grave, some scholars attributed building of his shrine to Majd al-Malik Baravistani (d. 492/1099 or 493/1100) the Persian vizier of Sultan Barkiaraq Saljuqi (reign 486-498/1093-1104).[32]

Describing his Darih, Ibn Jubayr reported that it was made of wood, decorated with exquisite patterns and beautiful nails knocked on it. The Darih was like a wooden window, that opens toward Qibla. After mentioning the grave of Ibrahim, al-Matari also mentioned a latticed Darih located toward the Qibla of the grave.[33]

Notes

  1. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1053; Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 494.
  2. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 322.
  3. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 3, p. 162.
  4. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 94.
  5. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 369.
  6. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 494.
  7. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 373; vol. 6, p. 134.
  8. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 253.
  9. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 393; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 252-253.
  10. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 253; Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 494.
  11. Ibn Ḥabīb, al-Muḥabbar, p. 74; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 271.
  12. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 60.
  13. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1053; Baghdādī, al-Munammaq, p. 423.
  14. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 494.
  15. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 290.
  16. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1053.
  17. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 166.
  18. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 333.
  19. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 333.
  20. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 495.
  21. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1053; Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 496.
  22. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, vol. 1, p. 23.
  23. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 98, p. 269; vol. 45, p. 65.
  24. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1053; Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 495.
  25. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1053.
  26. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 1, p. 81.
  27. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 1, p. 81; Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 1, p. 209.
  28. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1053; Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 496.
  29. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 496.
  30. Samhūdī, Wafāʾ al-wifā, vol. 3, p. 84.
  31. Samhūdī, Wafāʾ al-wifā, vol. 3, p. 84.
  32. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 299.
  33. Maṭarī, al-Taʿrīf, p. 119.

References

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