Abu l-Hasan Sha'rani
Abū l-Ḥasan Sha'rānī (Persian: ابوالحسن شعرانی) (b. 1320/1902 - d. 1393/1973), known as 'Allama Sha'rani, was a Shi'a scholar and philosopher in the 14th/20th century. He knew French and English, and was an expert in Quranic studies, hadith, fiqh, usul al-fiqh, kalam (Islamic theology), Islamic philosophy, geometry, and astronomy. Thus he wrote many works in these areas. His teachers include Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi, Mirza Mahdi Ashtiyani and Mirza Mahmud Qummi, and his students include Mirza Hashim Amuli, Hasan Hasanzada Amuli, and 'Abd Allah Jawadi Amuli. In addition to writing books, he wrote commentaries and annotations on important books of the Quranic exegesis, hadith, theology and Islamic philosophy. His books include Falsafi ula, which concerns the views of western philosophers about metaphysics and the immateriality of the soul, and Rah-i sa'adat, which is an argument for prophecy and in particular, the prophecy of the Prophet Muhammad (s).
|Death||Shawwal 7, 1393/November 3, 1973|
|Burial Place||Rey, inside the holy shrine of 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani|
|Professors||Mirza Mahdi Ashtiyani, Mirza Mahmud Qummi, Habib Allah Dhu l-Funun, Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi, Shaykh 'Abd al-Nabi Nuri, Sayyid Abu Turab Khwansari|
|Students||Mirza Hashim Amuli, 'Abd Allah Jawadi Amuli, Hasan Hasanzada Amuli, Muhammad Hasan Ahmad Faqih Yazdi, Ali Akbar Ghaffari, Muhaddith Urmuwi|
|Works||A commentary on Tajrid al-i'tiqad, Rah-i sa'adat, Annotations on Majma' al-bayan, Falsafi ula|
Mirza Abu l-Hasan Sha'rani was born in 1320/1902 in Tehran and his father was a clergy. He learned the Qur'an from his father, Shaykh Muhammad Tihrani, and started his Islamic education in the Marwi Seminary where he studied Arabic literature, Persian literature, logic, fiqh, usul al-fiqh, Islamic philosophy and mathematics. He then went to the Qom Seminary, which had recently been founded, and attended advanced lectures of fiqh and usul al-fiqh in Qom. His father died when Abu l-Hasan was 26. After this, he migrated to Iraq where he studied Shiite as well as Sunni fiqh. When he finished his education and after studying and practice of mysticism, he returned to Tehran in the era of Rida Shah Pahlawi where he started teaching, research, and preaching.
Knowledge of other languages
In addition to expertise in different Islamic disciplines, Abu l-Hasan Sha'rani knew some languages, including Persian, Arabic, French, Turkish, English, and Hebrew.
Sha'rani taught many students during his life. Here are some of his prominent students:
Sha'rani wrote many works in different areas of Islamic disciplines and human sciences, from fiqh and usul al-fiqh to Islamic philosophy, kalam, the Qur'an, and hadith. Here is a list of some of his important work.
Quranic exegesis and sciences
- Annotations on Majma' al-bayan (in ten volumes)
- Editing Tafsir al-safi (two volumes)
- Annotations on Tafsir manhaj al-sadiqin (ten volumes)
- An introduction and annotations on Tafsir Abu l-Futuh al-Razi (twelve volumes)
- Nathr tuba, an encyclopedia of Quranic terms (from the letter, "alif" to the letter, "sad")
- Tajwid al-Quran
- Publication of more than 60 copies of the Quran in different sizes
- Annotations on al-Wafi (three volumes)
- Annotations on Wasa'il al-Shi'a (volumes 16 through 20)
- A translation of, and a commentary on, Supplication of 'Arafa by Imam al-Husayn (a) in Farsi
- A translation of, and a commentary on, al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya in Farsi
- Editing Jami' al-ruwat
- An essay concerning dirayat al-hadith
- Al-Madkhal ila 'adhb al-manhal concerning usul al-fiqh
- A commentary on Kifayat al-usul
- A commentary on Qawa'id al-usul
- A brief introduction to fiqh in Farsi (as a material to teach in schools)
Islamic philosophy and theology (kalam)
- A commentary on Tajrid al-i'tiqad
- Rah-i sa'adat (an argument for prophecy and a reply to objections by Jews and Christians concerning the prophecy of Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah (s)
- A translation of the book, al-Imam 'Ali sawt al-'adala al-insaniyya into Farsi. The book was written by George Jordac. Sha'rani has annotated some of his objections in the translation.
- Annotations on the book, Muhammad: prophet and statesman, by Montgomery Watt
- Philosophical terminologies
- Falsafa-yi ula ya ma ba'd al-tabi'a (First philosophy or metaphysics) in Farsi
- An essay on how to work with zij in accordance with new astronomy
- Annotations on Tashrih al-afka in terms of new astronomy
- A translation on Flammarion's book about stronomy from French to Perisan
- Day and night calendars
- An introduction and an editing of Kashf al-ghumma
- An introduction and an editing of Muntakhab al-tawarikh
Late in his life, Sha'rani was taken to Germany in order to be cured, but to no avail; he died on Saturday, Shawwal 7, 1393/November 3, 1973. His corpse was taken back to Iran and was buried in the Holy shrine of 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani on Thursday that week.
- Zijs are Islamic astronomical books that tabulates parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from ابوالحسن شعرانی in Farsi WikiShia.