References of Ethics
Qur'an • Nahj al-balagha • Misbah al-shari'a wa miftah al-haqiqa • Makarim al-Akhlaq • Al-Mahajja al-bayda' fi tahdhib al-ahya' • Tanbih al-khawatir wa nuzhat al-nawazir • Jami' al-sa'adat • Mi'raj al-sa'ada • Al-Muraqabat
Al-Nabaʾ Verse (Arabic: آیة النبأ) is the 6th verse of Quran 49 (Sura al-Hujurat) which is studied as an argument for considering al-khabar al-wahid (sole report) as a religiously valid proof in the knowledge of Principles of Jurisprudence. Most exegetes know the occasion of the revelation for this verse, the event when Muslims decided to attack Banu l-Mustaliq tribe based on the report of al-Walid b. 'Uqba.
Text and Translation
|“|| یا أَیهَا الَّذِینَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ فَتَبَیَّنُوا أَن تُصِیبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَیٰ مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِینَ
|— Quran 49:6|
Occasion of Revelation
Exegetes have mentioned two occasions of revelation for this verse:
- Most exegetes have written that the verse was revealed about al-Walid b. 'Uqba who was sent by the Prophet (s) to Banu l-Mustaliq to collect their zakat.
Majma' al-bayan wrote,
- "When the people of the tribe were informed about coming of the Prophet's (s) representative, happily went to welcome him, but al-Walid, due to his enmity with them at the Age of Ignorance, thought that they were going to kill him. Therefore, he returned to the Prophet (s) and said, "they refrained from paying zakat." The Prophet (s) became angry and decided to fight with them, but this verse was revealed and ordered Muslims that whenever a corrupt person brought a news, they should investigate about it."
- Also, some said that the verse was revealed about the story of accusation of Mariya al-Qibtiyya, the wife of the Prophet (s). In this story, Imam Ali (a) who was ordered to punish the wrongdoer, asked the Prophet (s) if he could ignore the rumors in case his findings were against others' reports; and, the Prophet (s) gave him such a permission. Finally, it was found that no crime was made and the rumors were not true.
As a Source of Validity for al-Khabar al-Wahid
In Principles of Jurisprudence, the al-Naba' Verse has been discussed about in order to prove the validity of al-Khabar al-Wahid. Scholars of usul have not reached a consensus that this verse could prove al-khabar al-wahid as a source of validity. Some scholars such as Muhammad Husayn al-Na'ini accept to base the validity of al-khabar al-wahid on this verse; and, some others such as al-Shaykh al-Ansari believed that this verse does not validate al-khabar al-wahid.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 22, p. 153.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 9, p. 198.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 9, p. 198-199.
- Farhangnāma-yi uṣūl, p. 62.
- Nāʾīnī, Fawāʾid al-uṣūl, vol. 3, p. 187.
- Anṣārī, Farāʾid al-uṣūl, p. 116-136.
- Markaz-i Iṭṭilāʿāt wa madārik-i Islāmī. Farhangnāma-yi uṣūl-i fiqh. Qom: Pazhūhishgāh-i ʿUlūm wa Farhang-i Islāmī, 1389 Sh.
- Anṣārī, Shaykh Murtaḍā. Farāʾid al-uṣūl. Fifth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1416 AH.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
- Nāʾīnī, Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Fawāʾid al-uṣūl. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1376 Sh.
- Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān. Tehran: Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.