Al-Sayyid 'Abd Allah Shubbar
Al-Sayyid ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Sayyid Muḥammad Riḍā Shubbar al-Ḥusaynī al-Najafī al-Kāẓimī (Arabic: السید عبدالله بن السید محمدرضا شُبّر الحسینی النجفی الکاظمی) was a Shi'a scholar in the 13th/19th century. He was a credible Imami scholar of hadith, ethics, and the author of Tafsir Shubbar (exegesis of the Qur'an). He was born in Najaf. After his preliminary studies, he went to Kadhimiya, where he engaged in teaching and writing until his death. Shubbar wrote many books and essays, which is why he came to be known as "the second Majlisi". Prominent Muslim scholars have admired his scholarly character and his work. Sayyid 'Abd Allah Shubbar died in Kadhimiya in 1242/1827. His grave is located in a chamber in the Shrine of Kadhimiya near his father's grave.
|Full Name||Al-Sayyid ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Sayyid Muḥammad Riḍā Shubbar al-Ḥusaynī al-Najafī al-Kāẓimī|
|Epithet||The Second Majlisi|
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shia|
|Place of Birth||Najaf|
|Death||Rajab, 1242/February 1827|
|Burial Place||The Shrine of Kazimayn|
|Professors||Al-Sayyid Muhammad Rida Shubbar, Sayyid Muhsin al-A'raji|
|Shaykh Ja'far al-Najafi, Shaykh Ahmad b. Zayn al-Din al-Ihsa'i, Shaykh Asad Allah al-Shushtari|
|Works||Tafsir Shubbar, Munyat al-muhassilin fi haqqiyya tariqat al-mujtahidin, etc.|
Sayyid Abd Allah Shubbar was born in Najaf in 1188/1774-75. After his birth, his father, Sayyid Muhammad Rida, moved to Kadhimiya, where he engaged in teaching and writing until his death. The Shubbar Family was a well-known family in Iraq.
His distant ancestor was Hasan b. Muhammad b. Hamza whose lineage goes to the 4th Shiite Imam, Imam Zayn al-'Abidin (a) and was known as "Shubbar". His father, Sayyid Muhammad Rida Shubbar, was known among people of Kadhimiya as "Saḥib al-Daʿwa al-Mustajaba" (a person whose requests are immediately and indiscriminately granted by God).
Sayyid Abd Allah had 6 sons: Husayn, Hasan, Muhammad, Ja'far, Musa, and Muhammad Jawad.
Sayyid Abd Allah studied with his father for a long time. At the same time, he also studied with Sayyid Muhsin al-A'raji, the author of al-Mahsul fi l-usul. Shaykh Ja'far al-Najafi, the author of Kashf al-ghita', Shaykh Ahmad b. Zayn al-Din al-Ihsa'i, the leader of Shaykhiyya, and Shaykh Asad Allah al-Shushtari, the author of Maqabis, gave him permissions for ijtihad.
The Usuli-Akhbari Conflict
The 11th/17th through 13th/19th centuries can be taken as the period of the three Akhbari, Usuli, and philosophical approaches. An important scholar who played a significant role in the period of the conflict between Usulis and Akhbaris was Sayyid 'Abd Allah Shubbar—the prolific Imami scholar who wrote books against the views and principles of Akhbarism, such as Munyat al-muhassilin fi haqqiyyat tariqat al-mujtahidin.
Sayyid Abd Allah Shubbar wrote many scholarly works regarding Islamic disciplines. Because of his many books, he came to be known as the second Majlisi. He wrote over 70 books. He was so quick in writing that at the end of some of his work he wrote: "I began to write this essay in the evening and finished it near the midnight".
In the Views of the Scholars
Al-Muhaddith al-Qummi referred to Shubbar as a keen knowledgeable scholar and high-ranking scholar of hadiths. Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-Dhahabi, a Sunni scholar, said about him that he was a very knowledgeable exegete of the Qur'an. Other scholars have also praised his scholarly character.
Demise and the Burial Place
Sayyid Abd Allah died at the age of 54 on Thursday night of Rajab, 1242/February 1827 in Kadhimiya. His son, Sayyid Hasan, performed his Funeral Prayer. His corpse was buried in the Shrine of Kazimayn near his father's grave. The author of Jawahir al-kalam held a mourning ceremony for him in Najaf.
- Amīn al-ʿĀmilī, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 8, p. 82.
- Amīn al-ʿĀmilī, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 8, p. 82; Shubbar, Akhlāq-i Shubbar, p. 22.
- Qummī, al-Kinā wa l-alqāb, vol. 2, p. 352.
- Amīn al-ʿĀmilī, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 8, p. 83.
- Amīn al-ʿĀmilī, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 2, p. 82.
- Amīn al-ʿĀmilī, Sayyid Muḥsin al-. Aʿyān al-Shīʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf, 1421 AH.
- Qummī, ʿAbbās. Al-Kinā wa l-alqāb. Tehran: Maktabat al-Ṣadr, [n.d].
Shubbar, ʿAbd Allāh al-. Akhlāq-i *Shubbar. Translated to Farsi by Muḥammad Riḍā Jabbārīyān. Qom: Hijrat, 1378 Sh.