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Al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim

Al-Sayyid Muḥammad Bāqir al-Ḥakīm (Arabic: السید محمدباقر الحكیم, b. 1939 - d. 2003) was a Shiite scholar in Iraq. He was the head, and a founder, of Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq.

Al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim
محمدباقر حکیم.jpg
Personal Information
Teknonym Martyr of Mihrab
Birth August 12, 1939
Place of Birth Najaf
Residence IraqIran
Death August 29, 2003
Burial Place Najaf
Scholarly Information
Professors Al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakimal-Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei
Socio-Political Activities
Head and the founder of Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq • Founder of Islamic Da'wa Party • Deputy head of the World Forum for Proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought

He was also a founder of Islamic Da'wa Party, and fought the ruling Ba'ath Party in Iraq for years. After his release from the prison in Iraq, he continued his fights in Iran, and in 2003, he was martyred in a terrorist explosion in Najaf.



Al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim was the fifth son of Ayatollah al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim, a Shiite marja'. He was born in Najaf on August 12, 1939.

After the American attack on Iraq and the collapse of the Ba'ath regime in 2003, he returned to Iraq on May 11, 2003 of the same year and resided in Najaf. However, he was martyred on August 29, 2003, in a car bomb attack after his imamate of the Friday Prayer and at the time of leaving the Shrine of Imam Ali (a).[1]


Al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim studied seminary courses with his father, developed an expertise in philosophy and Quranic sciences, and achieved the degree of ijtihad in Islamic jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence.[2] He then moved to Baghdad, where he taught Quranic sciences and jurisprudence in Usul al-Din College from 1964 to 1975. He also collaborated in the foundation of the School of Islamic Sciences (Madrasat al-'Ulum al-Islamiyya).[citation needed]



  • Al-Hukm al-Islami bayn al-nazariyya wa l-tatbiq
  • Al-Nazariyyat al-Islamiyya fi l-taharruk al-siyasi
  • 'Ulum al-Qur'an
  • Al-Wahdat al-Islamiyya min manzur al-Thaqalayn
  • Al-Kifah al-musallah fi l-Islam[3]

Political Activities

Al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir was trusted by his father, and participated in many Islamic activities as his father's representative. Together with al-Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi al-Hakim, al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, and some others, he founded al-Da'wa Party in 1958,[4] and during the marja'iyya of al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, he acted under his supervision.[5]

Safar Uprising in Iraq

In 1977, in the Safar uprising in Iraq, al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim showed up among pilgrims of Imam al-Husayn's (a) Arba'in as a representative of al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, in order to encourage them and guide them to the main goals.[6]

When Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim went to people on their way from Najaf to Karbala, he encouraged them and told them that he would stay with them.[7]

When the Safar Uprising in Iraq was quenched, thousands of people, including al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, were arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment.[8] However, he was later released in 1979 after Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr's general amnesty.[citation needed]

Life in Iran

Following increased pressures and the impossibility of political activity in Iraq, al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim surreptitiously departed to Damascus in 1980. He then moved to Iran through Turkey.[9]

In Iran, he participated in political and cultural activities and undertook a number of positions, including the general secretary of the Society of Mujahid Scholars in Iraq (Jama'at al-'Ulama' al-Mujahidin fi l-'Iraq) which was founded in 1980, the spokesman of the Supreme Council of Iraq which was established on November 17, 1982, the head of the Supreme Council of Iraq in 1986, collaboration in the establishment of the World Forum for Proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought and its chairmanship, and deputy head of Ahl al-Bayt World Assembly.[10]

Moreover, he founded a military organization associated with the Supreme Council of Iraq under al-Badr army (Faylaq al-Badr) with 3000 soldiers, all of whom were Iraqis who had migrated to Iran. The army fought Iraqi forces in Iran-Iraq war.[11]

Intifada al-Sha'baniyya

When Iraqi people began an uprising against the Ba'ath regime in Sha'ban 1411 (February 1991), al-Badr army entered the Iraqi soil to support the uprising. However, the uprising was quenched by the Iraqi government, and the army failed to make any accomplishments.[12] Advocates of al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim played a prominent role in this Intifada.[13]


Divinity of Government

He believed that government is fundamentally a divine position. Thus, he believed that a favored government is one that takes divine doctrines into consideration.[14]

Islamic Republic

Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim believed that people should be free to choose the type of government, and their freedom should not be restricted or compromised for any reason. He preferred Islamic republic to other types of government, maintaining that it should be administrated by a just and informed jurist. People's role in this type of government is to know the jurist guardian (al-wali al-faqih), obey him, and connect to him through his representatives.[15]

He also believed in political pluralism, provided that the Islamic government is recognized, extant laws are abided with, and the security of the society is not disrupted. He believed that political pluralism does not constitute a problem for an Islamic society.[16]

Expertise of Marja'iyya

In 1999, Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim propounded his view of expertise in religious marja'iyya. In his view, because of political developments in the Islamic world, political oppressions, and heavy responsibilities of marja's, religious marja'iyya should tend towards expertise, and thus, some marja's should concern themselves with issuing fatwas, and others should concern themselves only with political and social affairs. Such a jurisprudential expertise should, in his view, be developed to encompass other issues as well.[17]


After the martyrdom of al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim on Rajab 1, 1424/ August 29, 2003 this day was officially recognized as the "Martyr Day" in Iraq.[18] Every year on this day, a commemoration ceremony is held in Iraq on the occasion of the anniversary of the Martyr of Mihrab.[19]


  1. ʿAmr, ʿUlamāʾ ʿaraftuhum, p. 124; Ḥakīm, Al-Waḥdat al-Islāmīyya, p. 42-43
  2. Sirāj, Al-Imām Muḥsin al-Ḥakīm: 1889-1970, p. 23; Amīnī, Muʿjam rijāl al-fikr, vol. 1, p. 442-443; Kharsān, Ḥizb al-daʿwat al-Islāmīyya, p. 80
  3. Khirsān, Ḥizb al-daʿwat al-Islāmīyya, p. 82-83
  4. Khirsān, Ḥizb al-daʿwat al-Islāmīyya, p. 63-64
  5. Kharsān, Ḥizb al-daʿwat al-Islāmīyya, p. 81; Amīnī, Muʿjam rijāl al-fikr, vol. 1, p. 433
  6. Muʾmin, Sanawāt al-jamr, p. 169
  7. Mūsawī, Jaʾfar Ṣādiq. "Nafaḥāt min intifāḍat Ṣafar ʿām 1977"
  8. Asadī, Mūjaz tārīkh al-ʿIrāq al-sīyāsī al-hadīth, p. 103
  9. Kharsān, Ḥizb al-daʿwat al-Islāmīyya, p. 81; Amīnī, Muʿjam rijāl al-fikr, vol. 1, p. 433; Ḥakīm, Al-Waḥdat al-Islāmīyya, p. 32-33
  10. Kharsān, Ḥizb al-daʿwat al-Islāmīyya, p. 82; ʿIjlī, al-Kharīṭat al-Sīyāsīyya li-l-muʿaraḍat al-ʿIrāqīyya, p. 56; Ḥakīm, Al-Waḥdat al-Islāmīyya, p. 34-36
  11. Ibrāhīm, al-Ṭāʾifīyya wa l-sīyāsa fī l-ʿālam al-ʿArabī, p. 418; ʿIjlī, al-Kharīṭat al-Sīyāsīyya li-l-muʿaraḍat al-ʿIrāqīyya, p. 177
  12. Naqqāsh, Shīʿat al-ʿIrāq, p. 384-88; ʿIjlī, al-Kharīṭat al-Sīyāsīyya li-l-muʿaraḍat al-ʿIrāqīyya, p. 330-31, 343-44; ʿIjlī, al-Kharīṭat al-Sīyāsīyya li-l-muʿaraḍat al-ʿIrāqīyya, p. 330-31, 343-44
  13. Khāmayār, "Qīyām-i sartāsarī wa hamigānī-yi mardum-i ʿIrāq", p. 67
  14. Ḥakīm, al-Waḥdat al-Islāmīyya, p. 152-53
  15. Ḥakīm, al-Waḥdat al-Islāmīyya, p. 30, 159, 178-79
  16. Ḥakīm, al-Waḥdat al-Islāmīyya, p. 208-9
  17. Nafīs, al-Shīʿa fī al-ʿIrāq, p. 85-86
  18. Martyr day in Iraq
  19. The seventh anniversary of the martyrdom of Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim in Baghdad


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