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Baghdād (Arabic: بغداد) is one of the most important cities of Iraq and its current capital. Al-Mansur al-'Abbasi founded this city and it was the capital of Abbasid Caliphate for five centuries. Support of Buyid dynasty, presence of Shi'a Imams (a), Shi'a scholars, the Four Deputies of Imam al-Mahdi (a) and their gravesites, Shi'a dynasties and the Guardianship of Shi'a in Baghdad caused the spread of Shi'a in the city.

In the era of Buyid dynasty, great scholars such as Ibn Qulawayh, al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Sharif al-Radi, al-Sharif al-Murtada, and al-Shaykh al-Tusi taught and trained students in Seminary of Baghdad. Previously, the Shi'a community in Baghdad lived in "Karkh" district; but now they mostly live in Sadr City.

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History

 
This is the oldest minaret in Baghdad. It belonged to the Caliph Mosque built by Caliph al-Muktafi (901-907 C.E.). Photo is taken in 1911.

Baghdad was the capital of Abbasid caliphate, and is the most important city of contemporary Iraq. Because of Tigris River, it has a very fertile land. The river divides the city into two geographical parts: the eastern and the western, formerly known as "Karkh" and "Rasafa". It is one of al-Mansur al-'Abbasi's foundations, which was chosen as the capital in the year 142/760, when it turned into one of the biggest and most prosperous cities of Iraq. It took six years to found Baghdad. Then in 146/764, al-Mansur moved from Hashimiyya to Baghdad and settled in his palace. It was completed and expanded further in the time of al-Hadi al-'Abbasi and al-Mahdi al-'Abbasi. Baghdad remained as the capital of A