Battle of Banu Nadir
The Battle of Banū Naḍīr (Arabic: غزوة بني نضیر) is one of the Prophet Muhammad's (s) battles with Jews of Medina. This is the second battle of the Prophet (s) with Jews of Medina that occurred in the month of Rabi' I of 4 AH (August, 625). Banu Nadir tribe, as well as the tribes of Banu Qaynuqa' and Banu Qurayza, were Jewish tribes who lived in Medina and were the Prophet's (s) allies, but they broke their treaty with Muslims. The battle led to the victory of the Muslims and people of Banu Nadir were then expelled from Medina.
|Battle of Banu Nadir|
|Result||Victorious of Muslims, Jews left Medina|
|Cause||Betrayal of Banu Nadir|
|Muslims||Jews of Banu Nadir|
|The Prophet (s)|
|The Qur'an mentioned this event in Qur'an 59:1-17|
History of the Residence of Banu Nadir in Medina
- Main article: Banu Nadir
The Banu Nadir tribe resided in Yathrib (Medina) before the emergence of Islam. There are different accounts of their origin. Al-Ya'qubi takes them to be a clan of the Judham tribe who converted to Judaism and resided in the Mount Nadir; accordingly, they were called so. According to another account, they were from the progeny of Harun b. 'Imran (a) (Aaron (a), the brother of the Prophet Moses (a)), who had immigrated to, and resided in, Yathrib after the demise of the Prophet Moses (a) and before the Arabian tribes of Aws and Khazraj immigrated there because of the 'Arim Floods. According to such accounts, in the wake of the Roman war with the Jews (in 70 AC), just like many other Jewish tribes, Banu Nadir escaped to Hijaz and resided in Butihan, an area of Medina. According to Ibn Sa'd, their residence was in the area of al-Ghars. Banu Nadir and other Medina-based Jews were very rich. In order to defeat or undermine the Jews, the Arabian tribes of Aws and Khazraj asked "Ghassanid" for help. Ghassanid went to Hijaz with an army, killing many of the Jews. Since then, Aws and Khazraj were dominant over the Jews. Later in the quarrels between Aws and Khazraj, Banu Nadir took sides with Aws.
Breach of the Treaty
Not long before the emergence of Islam and before the occurrence of the Battle of Uhud, Banu Nadir had relationships with Abu Sufyan. After the Prophet's (s) immigration to Medina, like other Jewish tribes, Banu Nadir made a compromise treaty with Muslims, promising to help them defend Medina in the case of any attacks, refusing to provide financial and life supports for the polytheists of Quraysh as well as commercial relations with them. But since Banu Nadir breached the treaty, the Battle of Banu Nadir occurred in Rabi' I of 4 AH (August, 625).
In this year, upon his return from Bi'r Ma'una, 'Amr b. Umayya killed two people of the Banu 'Amir tribe who had letters of security from the Prophet (s). 'Amir b. Tufayl asked the Prophet (s) for blood money. In order to pay for the blood money, the Prophet (s) asked Banu Nadir, who were allies of Banu 'Amir, for help. They accepted to help the Prophet (s), but in a conspiracy to kill the Prophet (s), they missioned 'Amr b. Jihash to kill the Prophet (s) with a stone when he was standing near the wall of the fort to receive the financial help. The Prophet (s) was informed by God about the conspiracy and gave them a deadline of ten days to leave Medina with all their movable property, except army equipment, and only come back annually to harvest their date groves.
The Prophet (s) appointed 'Abd Allah b. Maktum as his successor in Medina and sieged Banu Nadir with an army under the commandership of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) for 15 days or 6 nights. During the siege, a Jewish person called 'Azwak attempted to kill the Prophet (s) but he was killed by 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a). The Prophet (s) then ordered his people to cut the date trees of Banu Nadir in Buwayra.
Finally, the Jews surrendered and accepted to leave Medina with only one load of a camel including their property, except army equipment, silvers, and golds. Some of them, including Huyayy b. Akhtab-whose daughter, Safiyya bt. Huyayy, married the Prophet (s) after the Conquer of Khaybar in 7/628- and Abu l-Huqayq -Safiyya's first husband- went to Khaybar, and others went to Syria.
Since no battle occurred, the left property did not count as booties, and it was all under the authority of the Prophet (s). Thus in accordance with a consent from Ansar, the Prophet (s) distributed the booties among Muhajirun so that Ansar would not have to financially support Muhajirun anymore.
Verses 1-17 of Qur'an 59 are concerned with the Battle of Banu Nadir and their deportation from Medina.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from غزوه بنی نضیر in Farsi Wikishia.