Battle of Siffin
The Battle of Șiffīn (Arabic: معركة صفين) was a battle between Imam Ali (a) and Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan occurred in Safar of 37/July 657 in an area called Siffin. Mu'awiya and his army later came to be called "Qasitun" (the cruel). When the army of Mu'awiya was about to be defeated they put up copies of Qur'an on their spearheads, as a sign of agreeing that Qur'an be the arbiter in settling their dispute), requiring troops to walk away from Imam Ali (a)'s army. Eventually, some arbiters were elected in order to judge between the two parties, and the battle ended with no result. 'Ammar and Khuzayma martyred in this battle.
|Date||Safar of 37/July 657|
|Cause||Mu'awiya's denial of pledging allegiance with Imam 'Ali (a)|
|Imam 'Ali's army||Syria army|
|Imam 'Ali (a) Malik al-Ashtar||Mu'awiya 'Amr b. 'As|
|Martyrdom of 25000||45000|
The Cause of the Battle
Origins of the Battle of Siffin go back to when Imam Ali (a) undertook the position of caliphate, since he wanted to dismiss Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan from the rule of Syria and appoint 'Abd Allah b. 'Abbas in his place. Imam Ali (a) wrote a letter to Mu'awiya, asking him to go to Medina together with the noblemen of Syria. He wrote to Mu'awiya that people murdered 'Uthman b. 'Affan without consulting him, but they elected him as the Caliph on the basis of consensus and consultation. In one of his letters to Mu'awiyya, Imam Ali (a) wrote:
- My allegiance is public and all Muslims are committed to it, both the ones who were in Medina at the time of the allegiance and the ones who were in other cities such as Basra and Syria. You think that you can avoid pledging allegiance to me by accusing me of murdering 'Uthman. Everyone knows that I have not killed him and there is no qisas on me. 'Uthman's heirs are better-positioned than you to ask for his vengeance. You are one of the people who disobeyed 'Uthman, and when he asked for your help, you did not help him until he was killed.
Mu'awiya did not respond to the letter.
Mobilizing the Army
After the Battle of Jamal, Imam Ali (a) resided in Kufa and tried to persuade Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan to obey him. When Imam Ali (a) realized that Mu'awiya will not be persuaded by his advice and that the noblemen of Kufa support the decision to go to war with Syria, he called people to the battle in a public sermon. Imam Ali (a) wrote a letter to Abd Allah b. Abbas to call people of Basra to attend the battle; many people from Basra went to Kufa together with 'Abd Allah b. 'Abbas. He also wrote a letter to Mikhnaf b. Sulaym, the ruler of Isfahan, and called him to join his army.
Also a number of women from Kufa attended the battle, encouraging the Army of Iraq against the army of Syria by reciting poems involving praises of Imam Ali (a) and his virtues. These women included Suda bt. Amara al-Hamadani, Umm Sanan, Zarqa' bt. 'Adiyy al-Hamadani, Umm al-Khayr and Jarwa bt. Murra b. Ghalib al-Tamimi.
Mu'awiya's assistants and advisors in the battle included: 'Amr b. 'As (who resided in Palestine at that time, and Mu'awiya asked him to join his army and work as his advisor in Syria; he promised him to appoint him as the ruler of Egypt), 'Ubayd Allah b. 'Umar, 'Abd al-Rahman b. Khalid b. Walid, 'Abd Allah b. 'Amr b. 'As, Marwan b. Hakam, Mu'awiya b. Hudayj, Dahhak b. Qays, Busr b. Artat, Shurahbil b. Simt al-Kindi and Habib b. Maslama.
The Beginning of the Battle
The two armies met in the border of Rome on the north of Iraq and Syria. Imam Ali (a) sent Malik al-Ashtar to the army of Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan for talks before the war, emphasizing that Imam Ali's (a) army should not start the war. When Malik al-Ashtar departed the camps, the army of Syria had already started the battle. However, after this attack, the army of Syria retreated.
After some sporadic clashes, in the month of Muharram, there was a ceasefire between the two parties of war. However, negotiations between Imam Ali (a)'s representatives and Mu'awiya continued. Mu'awiya suggested as his main condition for a compromise the execution of people who, in his view, were accomplices in the murder of 'Uthman, such as 'Ammar b. Yasir, 'Adi b. Hatam, and Malik al-Ashtar.
On the first day of Safar, there was a violent war between the two armies. Every day one of Imam Ali (a)'s commanders undertook the leadership of the frontline. On the first day Malik al-Ashtar, on the second day Hashim b. 'Utba, on the third day 'Ammar b. Yasir, on the fourth day Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya, and on the fifth day 'Abd Allah b. 'Abbas led the frontline.
Siege of Euphrates
The army of Mu'awiya stood between the Euphrates and the army of Imam Ali (a) and did not allow Imam's (a) soldiers to access the water. Imam (a) sent Musayyib b. Rabi' al-Riyahi and Sa'sa'a b. Sawhan to Mu'awiya and said, "go to Mu'awiya and tell him, ‘your soldiers have stood between us and the water and have blocked our access to water. Stop blocking the water so that our army and your use it equally, otherwise we have to fight over water and each of us wins, will be the winner of the war'." During the conversation between Mu'awiya and Imam Ali's (a) messengers, Mu'awiya became angry and said, "Ali (a) will have no share of this water. God shall not give water to Mu'awiya and his father from the Pound of Kawthar, if I let Ali (a) or his companions drink from the water of Euphrates; except, he (a) wins by the force of the sword." Finally, the soldiers of Imam Ali (a) attacked the army of Mu'awiya and took over the Euphrates. Then, Imam Ali (a) ordered to let the water free for everyone and no one should prevent the people of Syria; thus, they went and took water from both armies.
- Main article: Laylat al-Harir
Laylat al-Harir was a rough night during the battle of Siffin. The armies of Imam Ali (a) and Mu'waiya fought in that night and many soldiers of both sides were killed. According to al-Minqari, in that night, there was no sound heard except the sound of hitting the swords which was more terrifying in the hearts of men than the sound of thunder or horrifying fall of mountains. Ibn Miskawayh described that night, "They fought in that night, so hard that spears broke and no arrow was left in quivers and then they began fighting with swords." In Laylat al-Harir, the soldiers of Imam Ali (a) were close to victory, until Ash'ath rose among al-Kindis, gave a sermon and with a peace-making tone, asked for stopping more bloodshed. According to hadiths, as soon as Mu'awiya was informed about the sermon of Ash'ath, ordered to put the copies of the Qur'an on the spears.
- Main article: The Arbitration
when the army of Mu'awiya was about to be defeated because of the attacks made by Malik al-Ashtar, Mu'awiya asked 'Amr b. al-'As for advice. By the suggestion of 'Amr b. al-'As and the order of Mu'awiya, people of Syria put volumes of the Qur'an on their spears, shouting: "O' people of Iraq! Let God be the arbiter between us". According to some accounts, they also shouted: "O' Arab people! Think about your women and daughters. If you die, who is going to fight the Romans, Turks and the Persians?" They thereby asked for ending the war. Imam Ali (a) ordered his army to continue the war, but most people in his army wanted to accept the arbitration. Thus Imam Ali (a) had to accept the arbitration.
Imam Ali (a) proposed Abd Allah b. Abbas or Malik al-Ashtar as his arbiter, and proposed Ahnaf b. Qays as a second or third arbiter, but some people did not accept his suggestions, and imposed Abu Musa al-Ash'ari to Imam Ali (a) as an arbiter. And people of Syria elected 'Amr b. al-'As as their representative for arbitration.
The two arbiters decided that 'Amr b. al-'As announces the removal of Mu'awiya from power, and Abu Musa al-Ash'ari announces the removal of Ali b. Abi Talib (a) from power, leaving the election of the Caliph to a council. 'Amr b. al-'As asked Abu Musa to announce the result of the arbitration ahead of him. Thus Abu Musa al-Ash'ari announced the removal of Imam Ali (a) from power, but when it came to 'Amr b. al-'As, instead of announcing the removal of Mu'awiya from power, he confirmed the dismissal of Imam Ali (a) by Abu Musa, and appointed Mu'awiya as the Caliph. After this, there was a quarrel between these two arbiters and they cursed each other.
The Result of the War
Because of what happened in the arbitration, the two armies stopped the battle and Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan could escape the inevitable defeat of his army. After this, Imam Ali (a) tried to mobilize people to attack Syria, but people of Kufa and Hijaz did not comply with his orders. Moreover, a group called Khawarij was formed that launched the Battle of Nahrawan against Imam Ali (a).
The Number of Casualties
There is controversy over the number of casualties in the two armies. According to some historians, 70,000 people were killed from both sides, 45,000 of whom were from the army of Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan, and 25,000 of whom were from the army of Imam Ali (a).
Monographs Concerning the Battle of Siffin
Some bibliographers and cataloguers, such as Ibn Nadim in his al-Fihrist, al-Najashi in his al-Rijal, al-Shaykh al-Tusi in his Fihrist and others have introduced books written about the Battle of Siffin, such as:
- Siffin by Jabir b. Yazid al-Ju'fi
- Siffin by Aban b. Taghlib
- Siffin by Abu Mikhnaf
- Siffin by Muhammad b. 'Amr al-Waqidi
- Waq'at Siffin (book) by Nasr b. Muzahim al-Minqari
- Siffin by Hisham al-Kalbi
- Siffin by Ishaq b. Bishr
- Siffin by Abu Ishaq Isma'il b. 'Isa al-'Attar
- Siffin by 'Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Abi Shayba
- Siffin by Yahya b. Sulayman al-Ju'fi
- Siffin by Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. Sa'id al-Thaqafi
- The books al-Siffin al-kabir and al-Siffin al-saghir by Muhammad b. Zakariyya b. Dinar
- Siffin by Mundhir b. Muhammad b. Mundhir b. Sa'id al-Qabusi
- Siffin by 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Yahya b. Ahmad al-Jaludi
- Siffin by Abu 'Abd Allah Husayn b. Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Halwani
- Siffin by Ibrahim b. Husayn b. Dizil al-Hamadani
- Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ nahj al-balāgha, vol. 3, p. 89.
- Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 211.
- Ibn Aʿtham, al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 375.
- Ibn Muzāḥim, Waqʿat ṣiffīn, p. 115.
- Ibn Aʿtham, al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 101.
- Ibn Aʿtham, al-Futūḥ, vol. 3, p. 143.
- Ibn Bakkār, Ikhbār al-wāfidāt, p. 36.
- Ibn Aʿtham, al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 382.
- Ibn Muzāḥim, Waqʿat ṣiffīn, p. 195, 429, 455, 461, 552; Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 392; vol. 3, p. 91.
- Jaʿfarīyān, Tārīkh-i khulafāʾ, p. 276.
- Ibn Muzāḥim, Waqʿat ṣiffīn, p. 196.
- Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 305.
- Ibn Aʿtham, al-Futūḥ, vol. 3, p. 5-6.
- Ibn Aʿtham, al-Futūḥ, vol. 3, p. 7.
- Ibn Aʿtham, al-Futūḥ, vol. 3, p. 12-13.
- Ibn Muzāḥim, Waqʿat ṣiffīn, p. 475.
- Ibn Miskawayh, Tajārub al-umam, vol. 1, p. 535.
- Ibn Muzāḥim, Waqʿat ṣiffīn, p. 480-481; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 188-189.
- Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ nahj al-balāgha, vol. 2, p. 210.
- Ibn Muzāḥim, Waqʿat ṣiffīn, p. 478.
- Ibn Muzāḥim, Waqʿat ṣiffīn, p. 490.
- Ibn Aʿtham, al-Futūḥ, vol. 4, p. 197-198.
- Ibn Muzāḥim, Waqʿat ṣiffīn, p. 545.
- Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 114-122; Ibn Muzāḥim, Waqʿat ṣiffīn, p. 513-514; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 63, 72, 78.
- Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ nahj al-balāgha, vol. 2, p. 208; Ibn Muzāḥim, Waqʿat ṣiffīn, p. 475, 558.
- Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muntaẓam, vol. 5, p. 120.
- Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Maḥmūdī. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī, [n.d].
- Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-. Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ. Edited by Muḥib al-Dīn Abū Saʿīd. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, [n.d].
- Dīnawarī, Aḥmad b. Dāwūd al-. Al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl. Edited by ʿAbd al-Munʿim ʿĀmir. Cairo: [n.p], 1960.
- Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd. Sharḥ nahj al-balāgha. Edited by Muḥammad Abū l-Faḍl Ibrāhīm. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, [n.d].
- Ibn al-Jawzī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī. Al-Muntaẓam fī tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, [n.d].
- Ibn Aʿtham, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Al-Futūḥ. Beirut: Dār al-Nudwa – Dār al-Aḍwāʾ, 1411 AH.
- Ibn Bakkār. Ikhbār al-wāfidāt min al-nisāʾ ʿalā Muʿāwīyat b. Abī Ṣufyān. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Risāla, [n.d].
- Ibn Miskawayh, Abū ʿAlī. Tajārub al-umam. Edited by Abū l-Qāsim Imāmī. Second edition. Tehran: Surūsh, 1379 Sh.
- Ibn Muzāḥim, Naṣr. Waqʿat ṣiffīn. Edited by ʿAbd al-Salām Muḥammad Hārūn. Second edition. Qom: Manshūrāt Maktabat al-Marʿashī al-Najafī. 1403 AH.
- Jaʿfarīyān, Rasūl. Tārīkh-i khulafāʾ. Qom: Dalīl-i Mā, [n.d].
- Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Edited by Muḥammad Abū l-Faḍl Ibrāhīm. Beirut: Dār al-Turāth, 1387 AH.