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Bribery or al-Rishwa (Arabic: الرشوة) is a forbidden action[1] and in jurisprudential terminology means giving property to a judge to change the true verdict to a false one or giving a false verdict instead of a true one;[2] however, there is a disagreement about an exact definition of bribery in jurisprudence.[3] Some consider its lexical definition which includes giving property to a judge or clerk as the example of bribery.[4]

The word "rishwa" is not mentioned in the Qur'an, but it is mentioned in many hadiths, such as in a hadith from the Prophet (s), where he (s) considered giving and taking bribe and also being a broker to deserve curse.[5] Other hadiths have considered it at the level of disbelief and polytheism.[6] Some other hadiths considered bribe among the examples of forbidden property and unlawful earning.[7]

In the view of some scholars, bribery is not only giving property, but also it includes any action which influences the verdict of a judge or the action of a clerk, such as flattery, tailoring clothes for them, etc.[8]

The person who receives bribe does not become its owner and has to return it.[9]

Notes

  1. Najafī, Jawāhir al-kalām, vol. 40, p. 131.
  2. Ḥusaynī Shāhrūdī, Muḥāḍirāt fī fiqh al-jaʿfarī, vol. 1, p. 271.
  3. Ṭabāṭabāyī Qummī, ʿUmdat al-ṭālib, vol. 1, p. 199.
  4. Najafī, Jawāhir al-kalām, vol. 40, p. 131; Ḥusaynī Shāhrūdī, Muḥāḍirāt fī fiqh al-jaʿfarī, vol. 1, p. 271.
  5. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 104, p. 274.
  6. ʿAyyāshī, Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshī, vol. 1, p. 322; Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 12, p. 64.
  7. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 5, p. 127.
  8. Ṭabāṭabāyī Yazdī, al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā, vol. 6, p. 444.
  9. Najafī, Jawāhir al-kalām, vol. 40, p. 131.

References

  • ʿAyyāshī, Muḥammad b. Masʿūd al-. Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshī. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī Maḥallātī. Tehran: al-Maktaba al-ʿIlmīyya al-Islāmīyya, 1363 Sh.
  • Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1376 AH.
  • Ḥusaynī Shāhrūdī, Sayyid ʿAlī. Muḥāḍirāt fī fiqh al-jaʿfarī. Qom: Dār al-Kitāb al-Islāmī, [n.d].
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1367 Sh.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Wafāʾ, 1403 AH.
  • Najafī, Muḥammad Ḥasan al-. Jawāhir al-kalām. ‌Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, [n.d].
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī Qummī, Taqī. ʿUmdat al-ṭālib fī l-taʿlīq ʿalā l-makāsib. Qom: Maḥallātī, 1371 Sh.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī Yazdī, Sayyid Muḥammad Kāẓim al-. Al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1417 AH.