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Ethics
مکارم اخلاق.jpg


Moral Verses
Ifk VersesAl-Ukhuwwa VerseAl-It'am VerseAl-Naba' VerseNajwa Verse


Moral Hadiths
Hadith of qurb al-nawafilHadith Makarim al-akhlaqHadith of Mi'rajHadith Junud al-'Aql wa l-Jahl


Moral Virtues
HumilityContentmentGenerosityControlling AngerTruthfulnessHilm (forbearance)AsceticismBraveryChastityFairness


Moral Vices
HubrisGreedEnvyLieBackbitingNamima (Talebearing)MiserlinessDisobedience to Parents'Ujb (self-conceit)Sum'aCutting blood relationSpreading grave sinsIngratitudeHypocrisy


Moral Terminologies
Jihad with the selfSelf-accusing soulAmmara soulSoul at peaceSelf-reckoningSelf-observationMusharataSinMorality lessonsImperceptibility


Moral Scholars
Muhammad Mahdi NaraqiAhmad al-NaraqiSayyid 'Ali Qadi Tabataba'iSayyid Rida Baha' al-DiniSayyid 'Abd al-Husayn DastghaybMuhammad Taqi Bahjat


Moral References

Qur'anNahj al-balaghaMisbah al-shari'a wa miftah al-haqiqaMakarim al-AkhlaqAl-Mahajja al-bayda' fi tahdhib al-ahya'Tanbih al-khawatir wa nuzhat al-nawazirJami' al-sa'adatMi'raj al-sa'adaAl-Muragabat

controlling anger or Kazm al-Ghayz (Arabic: کظم الغیظ) which means "controlling anger" is among moral virtues. In verse 134 of Qur'an 3, controlling anger is mentioned among the qualities of righteous ones and in hadiths, rescuing from the punishment of God and achieving God's contentment are mentioned among the fruits of controlling anger. Scholars of ethics have discussed about it under the title of anger and wrath and have proposed different techniques for controlling anger.

Seventh Imam of Shi'a (a) was called al-Kazim because of suppressing his anger.

Contents

Meaning

"Ghayz" refers to the most intense anger and the heat of boiling up one's blood.[1] "Kazm" means "holding the breath". "Kazm Al-Ghayz" is an ethical term which means "to control the anger and avoid showing it".[2] The person who always controls his anger is called "Kazim". This virtue is also close to other moral virtues such as hilm (forbearance) and forgiveness ('afw). Also, in some hadiths, hilm (forbearance) is interpreted as "kazm al-ghayz" and controlling oneself.

The Qur'an and Hadiths

In verse 134 of Qur'an 3, controlling anger (kazm al-ghayz) is mentioned among the qualities of righteous people:

"Those who spend in ease and adversity, and suppress their anger, and excuse [the faults of] the people, and Allah loves the virtuous ". (Qur'an 3:134)

In hadiths, controlling anger is emphasized by Infallible Ones (a) as a moral virtue. In al-Kafi, the book of faith and disbelief, al-Kulayni mentioned 13 hadiths under the title of kazm al-ghayz (controlling anger).[3] It is also mentioned in Makarim al-akhlaq supplication from Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya.[4] Also, in hadiths about dignity and honor, rescuing from the punishment of God and achieving God's contentment are mentioned among the fruits of controlling anger.[5]

It is narrated from the Prophet (s) that: "Whoever controls his anger, God will keep him away from punishment."[6]

Techniques for Controlling Anger

In ethical references, controlling anger is discussed in the section regarding moral vices, under the attribute of "anger". Scholars of ethics have proposed different techniques for controlling anger.[7] In al-Muhajjat al-bayda, Fayd Kashani has mentioned some scientific and practical techniques for controlling anger. For scientific techniques, he has mentioned reflecting upon hadiths discussing the merits of controlling anger, forbearance and forgiveness, rewards mentioned in these hadiths for controlling anger, remembering the power and wrath of God, thinking about the ugliness of face and criticizing the sense of revenge.[8]

Also, Fayd Kashani mentioned asking God for forgiveness and changing the position among practical techniques of controlling anger. He said that if asking God for forgiveness does not work, and the angry person is standing, he should sit down, and if he is sitting, he should lean back or lies down on the ground.[9] In some hadiths, anger is likened to fire and it is said that it will not be extinguished except by water, so when someone is angry, he should perform wudu. In some other hadiths, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever becomes angry, he should put his face on the ground. Warram b. Abi Firas said that the Prophet (s) meant that the person should prostrate so that his self is lowered and his anger is suppressed.[10]

Imam al-Kazim (a)

Imam al-Kazim (a) was titled as "al-Kazim", because, he (a) controlled his anger.[11] There are different reports in sources that Imam al-Kazim (a) controlled his anger in front of enemies and those who treated him badly.[12] For example, once a man who was a descendant of 'Umar b. Khattab insulted Imam Ali (a) at the presence of Imam al-Kazim (a). Companions of Imam al-Kazim (a) wanted to attack him, but Imam (a) prevented them. Later, he (a) went to the farm of that man. When he saw Imam (a), began shouting fearing that Imam (a) would trample his products. Imam (a) approached him and asked him kindly, "How much he spent for planting that farm? The man said, "100 Dinars." Then, Imam (a) asked, "How much will you gain from it?" The man answered, "I do not know the unseen." Imam (a) asked, "How do you think you would gain from it?" The man answered, "200 Dinars." Imam (a) gave him 300 Dinars and said, "Here you get 300 Dinars and you still have your product as well". Then, he (a) went toward the mosque. That man went to the mosque and arrived sooner than Imam (a). When he saw Imam (a), stood up and recited the following verse loudly, "Allah knows best where to place His apostleship!" (Qur'an 6:124)[13]

See Also

Notes

  1. Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Mufradāt, p. 619.
  2. Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Mufradāt, p. 712.
  3. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 109-111.
  4. Al-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya, twentieth supplication.
  5. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 109-111.
  6. Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, al-Maḥajja al-bayḍāʾ, vol. 5, p. 306-307.
  7. Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, al-Maḥajja al-bayḍāʾ, vol. 5, p. 306-307.
  8. Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, al-Maḥajja al-bayḍāʾ, vol. 5, p. 306-307.
  9. Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, al-Maḥajja al-bayḍāʾ, vol. 5, p. 306-307.
  10. Warrām, Majmūʿa-yi Warrām, vol. 1, p. 124.
  11. Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 6, p. 164; Ibn al-Jawzī, Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ, p. 312.
  12. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 233; Qarashī, Ḥayāt al-Imām Mūsā b. Jaʿfar (a), vol. 2, p. 160-162.
  13. Baghdādī, Tārīkh Baghdad, vol. 13, p. 30.

References

  • Baghdādī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Tārīkh Baghdad. Edited by Muṣṭafā ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭāʾ. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1417 AH.
  • Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, Muḥammad b. Murtaḍā al-. Al-Maḥajja al-bayḍāʾ fī tahdhīb al-aḥyāʾ. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Nshr al-Islāmī, [n.d].
  • Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1385 AH.
  • Ibn al-Jawzī, Sibṭ. Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ. Qom: Manshūrāt al-Raḍī, 1418 AH.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿalā l-ʿibād. Qom: Kungira-yi Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1413 AH.
  • Qarashī, Bāqir Sharīf al-. Ḥayāt al-Imām Mūsā b. Jaʿfar (a). Edited by Maḥdi Bāqir al-Qarashī. [n.p]: Mihr-i Dildār, 1429 AH.
  • Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad al-. Mufradāt alfāẓ al-Qurʾān. Edited by Ṣafwān ʿAdnān. Damascus: Dār al-Qalam – Dār al-Shāmīyya, 1412 AH.
  • Warrām, Ibn Abī Fāris. Majmūʿa-yi Warrām. Qom: al-Maktaba al-Fiqhīyya, 1410 AH.