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Fatima bt. al-Imam al-Husayn (a)

This article is about a daughter of Imam al-Husayn (a). For other people named Fatima, see Fatima (disambiguation).
Descendant of Imam
Fatima bt. al-Imam al-Husayn (a)
Father Imam al-Husayn (a)
Mother Umm Ishaq
Birth Around 51/671
Place of Birth Medina
Place(s) of Residence Medina
Spouse(s) Al-Hasan al-Muthanna, 'Abd Allah b. 'Amr b. 'Uthman b. 'Affan
Children 'Abd Allah, Ibrahim, al-Hasan, and Zaynab from al-Hasan al-Muthanna; Muhammad al-Dibaj, Qasim, and Ruqayya from 'Abd Allah
Demise Around 117/735
Place of Burial Medina

Fāṭima bt. al-Ḥusayn (Arabic: فاطمة بنت الحسین), was the eldest daughter of Imam al-Husayn (a) and her mother was Umm Ishaq. She was present in Karbala, and, according to a hadith from Imam al-Baqir (a), Imam al-Husayn (a) gave her the trusts of Imamate and his written will for safekeeping, and she later delivered them to Imam al-Sajjad (a).

Contents

Lineage and Birth

Her father was Imam al-Husayn b. Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and her mother was Umm Ishaq, the daughter of Talha b. Ubayd Allah.[1]

Her exact date of birth is not known, but because her mother was first, married to Imam al-Hasan (a) and then, after his martyrdom, married Imam al-Husayn (a), her birth must have been after the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan (a), probably around 51/671.[2]

It is reported that her face was very similar to that of her grandmother, Lady Fatima (a), the daughter of the Prophet (s).

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Mariya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
al-Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
Ibrahim
 
Idris
 
 
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
Musa
 
Fatima
 
Hakima
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-'Askari
 
Husayn
 
Muhammad
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 


Marriage with al-Hasan al-Muthanna

Before the Tragedy of Karbala, Fatima married her cousin al-Hasan al-Muthanna, the son of Imam al-Hasan (a).[3] It is reported that after her husband passed away, she mourned on his grave for one year, fasting during the day and praying at night.[4] According to a hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari, Fatima built a mausoleum over the grave of her husband.[5]

Presence in Karbala and Captivity

Fatima was present in Karbala together with her husband,[6] who was one of the injured in that incident. Together with the other members of Imam al-Husayn's (a) family, Fatima was taken to Kufa and then to Damascus as a captive.[7] She is the narrator for some of tragic incidents in Karbala and afterwards.[8] There was an exchange of words between her and Yazid at the latter's court.[9] Ahmad b. Ali al-Tabrisi has recorded her debates with the people of Kufa.[10]

Marriage with Abd Allah b. Amr

After al-Hasan al-Muthanna passed away, Fatima married with Abd Allah b. Amr b. Uthman b. Affan.[11] When Abd Allah passed away, Abd al-Rahman b. Dahhak, the governor of Medina, proposed to her, but she refused.[12]

Demise

According to Sibt b. al-Jawzi, her demise was around 117/735.[13] Without mentioning her exact date of demise, Ibn Hibban has mentioned that she passed away at the age of 90.[14] Ibn Asakir reports that her demise occurred during the reign of Hisham b. Abd al-Malik.[15] She passed away in Medina.

Children

She had four children from al-Hasan al-Muthanna: Abd Allah, Ibrahim, al-Hasan, and Zaynab.[16] Her children from her second husband Abd Allah b. Amr were Muhammad al-Dibaj, Qasim, and Ruqayya.[17] Most of her descendants were killed or imprisoned because of their opposition to Abbasid caliphate.[18]

characteristics

Custodian of the Trusts of Imamate

According to a hadith from Imam al-Baqir (a), before his martyrdom, Imam al-Husayn (a) gave the trusts of Imamate to Fatima for safekeeping.[19]

Narration of Hadith

Fatima was one of the Tabi'un and transmitters of hadith. She Transmitted hadith from her figures including her father Imam al-Husayn (a), her grandmother Lady Fatima (a), her aunt Lady Zaynab (a), his brother Imam al-Sajjad (a), Asma' bt. Umays, Abd Allah b. Abbas, Bilal, and Aisha.[20] Fatima has been regarded as a trustworthy transmitter from the fourth level of transmitters.[21]

Notes

  1. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 491; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 329; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 214.
  2. Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Dānishnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), vol. 1, p. 351.
  3. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 473; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 70, p. 17; Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 213.
  4. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 26; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 70, p. 19
  5. Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 1, p. 446.
  6. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 25, 121.
  7. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 491; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 86.
  8. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 121; Ṣadūq, al-Amālī, p. 164.
  9. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 464.
  10. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 272.
  11. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 35, p. 256; Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 167.
  12. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 474.
  13. Ibn al-Jawzī, Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ, p. 251.
  14. Ibn Ḥibbān, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 5, p. 301.
  15. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 70, p. 17.
  16. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 35, p. 256.
  17. Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 199; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 35, p. 256.
  18. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 7, p. 536.
  19. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 303.
  20. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 70, p. 10; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 35, p. 254-255.
  21. ʿAsqalānī, Taqrīb al-madhāhib, vol. 2, p. 657.

References

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