First Ten Days of Muharram
The First Ten Days of Muḥarram are Muharram 1st to the Muharram 10th. Muharram is the first month in the lunar calendar. In these ten days, the Shi'as hold mourning ceremonies on the occasion of the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a) and other martyrs of the Event of Karbala.
Naming of the First Ten Days of Muharram
In many Shiite areas, every day of the Muharram month is named after one of the Martyrs of Karbala, and so, people mourn in the name of those martyrs by reciting an elegy. The naming has no religious origin. Moreover, its historical origin is not known, and it differs in different areas.
- The first day: elegy of Muslim b. 'Aqil
- The second day: arrival in Karbala
- The third day: elegy of Ruqayya bt. al-Imam al-Husayn (a)
- The fourth day: elegy of the children of Zaynab (a), or al-Hurr b. Yazid al-Riyahi or Two Sons of Muslim b. 'Aqil or some well-known companions of Imam al-Husayn (a), such as Habib b. Mazahir, Zuhayr b. al-Qayn, and …
- The fifth day: elegy of 'Abd Allah b. al-Hasan or companions of Imam al-Husayn (a)
- The sixth day: elegy of Qasim b. al-Hasan
- The eighth day: elegy of 'Ali al-Akbar (a)
- The tenth day: it is the Day of Ashura in which elegies regarding Imam al-Husayn (a) himself are recited.
- The night of the tenth day: it is Sham-i Ghariban (the Evening of Strangers) in which elegy of Zaynab (a) is recited. In Sham-i Ghariban, lights are usually turned off and a mourning ceremony is held with small lights, such as candles. In some areas, people in Mourning Processions do not carry 'alam and do not practice zanjirzani (self-flagellation) and chest-beating on this night.
- Main article: Conference of Husayni Infants
Since 2003, a conference is held under the Husayni Infants in order to honor 'Ali al-Asghar (a), the infant son of Imam al-Husayn (a) who was martyred in his infancy. The ceremony is held in the first Friday of the Muharram month. It was first held in Tehran. In recent years, it is also held in other Shiite countries. The ceremony is attended by women who take their young and infant children with them.
Days after the Ten Days
- The 11th day: elegy of the departure of the caravan of the Captives of Karbala from Karbala to Kufa, or elegy of Zaynab (a).
- The 12th day: elegy of arrival of the caravan of the Captives of Karbala in Kufa, or elegy of Imam al-Sajjad (a).
- The material for this article is mainly taken fromدهه محرم in Farsi Wikishia.