The Funeral prayer (Arabic: صلاة الجنازة) is an obligatory (wajib) prayer that should be said on the corpse of a Muslim. It consists of 5 takbirs (that is, "Allah Akbar") after each of which, except the last one, particular supplications should be recited. The prayer should be said while standing.
The Funeral prayer has no ruku', sujud, or salam; it is not required to have wudu, ghusl, or tayammum in order for this prayer to be valid, although it is recommended to observe the conditions of other obligatory prayers in it.
The prayer can be said in congregation, although people who perform the Funeral prayer behind a leader should recite takbirs and supplications by themselves.
The Funeral prayer is a collective obligation (al-wajib al-kifa'i), that is, if some people say it, then it is not obligatory for others to say it. When a Muslim passes away, other Muslims are obliged to ritually wash his or her body, cover the corpse with a shroud, say prayers on it, and then bury it. If one Muslim does this, then others will not be obligated to do so.
The Funeral prayer is so important that if a corpse is buried without a prayer or with an invalid prayer, then in some cases, the corpse has to be exhumed from the grave, and be reburied after saying prayers on it. In other cases, the prayer should be said on the grave.
It is obligatory to say the Funeral prayer for Muslims over six years old, and it is forbidden to be said on the corpse of non-Muslims.
Conditions of the Funeral Prayer Performer
Unlike other prayers, purity (that is, wudu, ghusl, or tayammum) or ritually cleanness of the worshiper's body or clothes or taking off one's shoes are not required, but other conditions of this prayer is like those of other prayers, and the supplications should be recited accurately.
How to perform it
After the corpse is ritually washed and covered with a shroud, it should be put in the direction of qibla such that its head is placed on the right side of the worshipers. The worshipers should first intend the Funeral prayer and, while standing, they should recite takbir 5 times. After the first 4 takbirs, they should recite particular supplications, and with the 5th takbir, the prayer is finished.
The prayer can be said in congregation, but people who say the prayer behind the leader should recite all the takbirs and supplications on their own.
The first supplication is a testimony of God's unity and the prophecy of the Prophet Muhammad (s). The second is salawat to Muhammad (s) and his progeny. The third is a request for divine forgiveness for all Muslims, and the fourth is a request for divine forgiveness for the deceased person.
One can only recite the obligatory parts of the supplications, but it is recommended to recite the more detailed version thereof (below is one of the recommended supplications). In the fourth supplication, there is slight difference between a female and a male corpse with regard to Arabic pronouns.
The supplications of the Funeral prayer
|Takbir||Obligatory Supplication||Mustahab Supplication|
|First →||اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا الهَ الَّا اللَّهُ وَ اَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسوُلُ اللَّهِ||اَللَّهُ اَکبَرُ اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا اِلهَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاشَریک لَهُ وَ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ اَرْسَلَهُ بِالْحَقِّ بَشیراً وَ نَذیراً بَینَ یدَی السّاعَةِ|
|Translation||I witness that there is no god but Allah.I witness that Muhammad (s) is His messenger||Allah is greater.I witness that there is no god but Allah; He is unique and has no partner;And I witness that Muhammad (s) is His servant and His messenger, sent by Him rightly before the resurrection as a bearer of good tidings and a warner.|
|Second→||اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ||و بارِک عَلی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَارْحَمْ مُحَمَّداً وَ آلَ مُحَمَّدٍ کاَفْضَلِ ما صَلَّیتَ وَ بارَکتَ وَ تَرَحَّمْتَ عَلی اِبْرهیمَ وَ آلِ اِبْرهیمَ اِنَّک حَمیدٌ مَجیدٌ وَ صَلِّ عَلی جَمیعِ الاَنْبِیآءِ وَالْمُرْسَلینَ|
|Translation||O' Allah! Send regards to Muhammad (s) and his progeny||bless Muhammad (s) and his progeny (a), and give your mercy to Muhammad and his progeny, equal to the greatest regard, blessing and mercy that you bestowed Ibrahim (a). Verily you are exalted and honored. Send regards to all your prophets and messengers.|
|Third→||اَللَّهُمَّ اْغفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنینَ وَ الْمُؤْمِناتِ||اَللّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنینَ وَالْمُؤْمِناتِ وَالْمُسْلِمینَ وَالْمُسْلِماتِ الاَحْیآءِ مِنْهُمْ وَالاَمْواتِ تابِعْ بَینَنا وَ بَینَهُمْ بِالْخَیراتِ اِنَّک مُجیبُ الدَّعَواتِ اِنَّک عَلی کلِّشَیئٍ قَدیرٌ|
|Translation||O' Allah! Forgive all Muslim men and women||O' Allah! Forgive all Muslim men and women, dead or alive. Relate us with them by virtues. Verily you respond to supplications. Verily you are omnipotent.|
|Fourth→||If the deceased is male:اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِهذَا المَیت and If the deceased is female:اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِهذِهِ المَیتَةِ||If the deceased is male: اَللّهُمَّ اِنَّ هذا عَبْدُک وَابْنُ عَبْدِک وَابْنُ اَمَتِک نَزَلَ بِک وَ اَنْتَ خَیرُ مَنْزُولٍ بِهِ اَللّهُمَّ اِنّا لا نَعْلَمُ مِنْهُ اِلاّ خَیراً وَ اَنْتَ اَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنّا اَللّهُمَّ اِنْ کانَ مُحْسِناً فَزِدْ فی اِحْسانِهِ وَ اِنْ کانَ مُسَّیئاً فَتَجاوَزْ عَنْهُ وَاغْفِرِ لَهُ اَللّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ عِنْدَک فی اَعْلا عِلِّیینَ وَاخْلُفْ عَلی اَهْلِهِ فِی الْغابِرینَ وَارْحَمْهُ بِرَحْمَتِک یا اَرْحَمَ الرّاحِمینَ and If the deceased is female: اَللّهُمَّ اِنَّ هذِهِ اَمَتُک وَابْنَةُ عَبْدِک و انبنَةُ اَمَتِکَ نَزَلَتْ بِک وَ اَنْتَ خَیرُ مَنْزوُلٍ بِهِ اَللّهُمَّ اِنّا لا نَعْلَمُ مِنْها اِلاّ خَیراً وَ اَنْتَ اَعْلَمُ بِهامِنّا اَللّهُمَّ اِنْ کانَتْ مُحْسِنَةً فَزِدْ فی اِحْسانِها وَ اِنْ کانَتْ مُسیئةً فَتَجاوَزْ عَنْها وَاغْفِرْ لَها اَللّهُمَّ اجْعَلْها عِنْدَک فی اَعْلا عِلِّیینَ وَاخْلُفْ عَلی اَهْلِها فِی الْغابِرینَ وَارْحَمْها بِرَحْمَتِک یا اَرْحَمَ الرّاحِمینَ|
|Translation||O' Allah, forgive this deceased||If the deceased is male: O' Allah! This is your servant and the son of your servants coming to you, and you are the best to whom one might go. O' Allah! We know nothing of him except goodness. Please forgive us and forgive him and give him the best place before you, and replace him among his household. With your mercy, O' the most merciful of the merciful! If the deceased is female: O' Allah! This is your servant and the daughter of your servants coming to you, and you are the best to whom one might go. O' Allah! We know nothing of her except goodness. Please forgive us and forgive her and give her the best place before you, and replace her among her household. With your mercy, O' the most merciful of the merciful!|
|Fifth→||End of the Prayer||End of the Prayer|
- The material for this article has been mainly taken from نماز میت in Farsi WikiShia.