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Imam 'Ali (a)
First Imam of Shi'a


Life
Event of GhadirLaylat al-MabitYawm al-DarCaliphateTimeline


Heritage
Nahj al-BalaghaGhurar al-hikamAl-Shiqshiqiyya Sermon


Excellences
Excellences of Ahl al-Bayt (a)Al-Wilaya VerseAhl al-Dhikr VerseUli l-Amr VerseAl-Tathir VerseAl-Mubahala VerseAl-Mawadda VerseAl-Sadiqin VerseHadith Madinat al-'IlmHadith al-ThaqalaynHadith al-RayaHadith al-SafinaHadith al-Kisa'Al-Ghadir SermonHadith al-ManzilaHadith Yawm al-DarHadith Sadd al-AbwabHadith al-WisayaLa Fata Illa Ali


Companions
'Ammar b. YasirMalik al-AshtarAbu Dhar al-Ghifari'Ubayd Allah b. Abi Rafi'Hujr b. 'Adiothers


Related Topics
Holy Shrine


Ḥadith Yawm al-Dār (Arabic: حدیث یوم الدار) known also as Ḥadith Yawm al-Indhār and Ḥadith al-'Ashira is a hadith from the Prophet (s) in which he asks his kinsmen to accept his call to Islam and he declares Ali b. Abi Talib (a) as his immediate successor. According to sources of history, hadiths and Qur'anic exegesis, the story has occurred in the third year of his Bi'tha when he was required by verse 214 of Qur'an 26, known as the al-Indhar Verse, to call his close kinsmen to Islam. The hadith is one of the of evidence appealed to by Imamiyya scholars of theology to show the immediate succession of the Prophet (s) by Imam Ali (a).

Contents

Lexicology

"Yawm" (Arabic: یوم) means: "day". It is also used in Arabic to refer to an event, such as Yawm al-Jamal which means the event or Battle of Jamal. And "al-dār" (Arabic: الدار) means "the house"; and it refers to the Prophet (s)'s house. Thus the phrase means the event of the Prophet (s)'s house. It has also been referred to as Bad' al-Da'wa (Arabic: بدء الدعوة) which means the beginning of the invitation, and "Yawm al-Indhar" (Arabic: یوم الإنذار) which means the event of warning. In some sources of history and hadiths, the event of 'Uthman b. Affan's murder has also been referred to as "Yawm al-Dar".[1]

Story

According to sources of Islamic history and Qur'anic exegesis, when the al-Indhar Verse was revealed to the Prophet (s) three years after Bi'tha/612, the Prophet (s) ordered Ali b. Abi Talib (a) to provide some meal and invite the sons of 'Abd al-Muttalib to a banquet so that he calls them to Islam. Around 40 people, including Abu Talib, Hamza, and Abu Lahab went to the meeting. It has been said that there was not much food, but everyone felt full while nothing was consumed of the food. Abu Lahab said: "Muhammad has performed magic!" These words dissuaded the Prophet (s) from expressing his call, and the meeting finished without any result. By the Prophet (s)'s order, Ali (a) was once again commissioned to prepare a banquet. In the second or third attempt, after having the food, the Prophet (s) said:

Significant Events of
Prophet Muhammad's (s) Lifetime
in Mecca
Before Islam
569-70 Birth; Demise of 'Abd Allah (Father)
576 Demise of Amina bt. Wahb (Mother)
578 Demise of 'Abd al-Muttalib (Grandfather)
583 Business Trip to Damascus
595 Marriage to Khadija bt. Khuwaylid
Islam
610 Bi'tha and the beginning of Prophethood
613 Yawm al-Dar and Overt Invitation
614 Harassment of Muslims by Quraysh
615 Birth of Lady Fatima (a)
615 Emigration of a Group of Muslims
to Abyssinia
616 Blockade of Banu Hashim
in Shi'b Abi Talib
619 End of Blockade of Banu Hashim
in Shi'b Abi Talib
619 The year of sorrow, Demise of Abu Talib
and Khadija bt. Khuwaylid
620 Mi'raj
621 The First Pledge of al-'Aqaba
622 The Second Pledge of al-'Aqaba
622 Emigration of Muslims to Medina


O' sons of 'Abd al-Muttalib! I swear to God that I do not know any youth among Arabs who brought for his tribe something better than what I brought to you; I have brought to you the best in this world and in the afterlife, and God has ordered me to call you to it. So which of you assists me in this mission so that I make him my brother and my successor and my caliph among you?

Nobody responded to him. But Ali (a) who was the youngest of all said: "O' the prophet! I will assist you". The Prophet (s) said:

Everyone got up and told Abu Talib with a smirk: "Muhammad has ordered you to obey your son and listen to him".

Historians and interpreters of the Qur'an have mentioned this event under different titles.[3]

Accounts

According to 'Allama Amini,[4] in addition to the above account of the event, there are six other accounts of the Prophet (s)'s words in the story:

  • "Who will pledge me his allegiance in order to be my brother and companion and your guardian (waliyyukum)?" In this account, the word "my caliph (successor)" does not appear, but the word "waliyyukum"[5] (your guardian) appears which does not figure in the previous account. This account supports the first.
  • "Which of you likes to be my brother and my minister and my successor and my caliph in my people (umma) and the guardian of all believers? … O' God! Fill his heart with knowledge and understanding and wisdom. He then told Abu Talib: O' Abu Talib! Listen to your son and obey him, since God has given him a position to His Prophet like that of Aaron (a) to Moses (a)".[6] This account does not only support the second account but also refers to Hadith al-Manzila, emphasizing the immediate succession of Imam Ali (a).
  • "Who will be my brother and my minister and my friend and my successor and my caliph in my household and will pay my debts?"[7] This reinforces the previous account.
  • "God has never chosen a prophet unless He also has chosen for him a brother and a minister and an heir and a successor and a caliph from his household. Now which of you stands and pledges me his allegiance in order to be my brother and my heir and my minister and my successor and be to me like Aron to Moses, except that there is no prophet after me?"[8] This account reinforces the first account, in addition to involving the content of Hadith al-Manzila.
  • "So which of you pledges me his allegiance in order to be my brother and my companion and my heir?"[9] This account does not involve the phrase "my caliph ", but it has "my heir" instead.
  • "I call you to two words which are light on the tongue, but are heavy on the scale: testifying that there is no god except Allah and that I am the messenger of Allah, so whoever accepts my call to this mission and assists me in this and takes care of the job will be my brother and my successor and my minister and my heir and my caliph after me".[10] This account is also explicit that Ali (a) is the Prophet (s)'s immediate caliph .

Importance

This hadith is one of the most important hadiths in favor of Imam Ali (a)'s immediate succession of the Prophet (s); it was appealed to by many Shiite scholars of theology.[11] Imam Ali (a) himself has appealed to this hadith against his opponents.

Al-'Allama al-Amini has discussed the hadith and its different ways of narration in full detail.[12]

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid has appealed to the Yawm al-dar hadith in his interpretation of the word "mawla" in Hadith al-Ghadir and the proof of Imam Ali (a)'s caliphate and wilaya. Like other Shiite scholars of theology, he believes that Imam Ali (a)'s wilaya and caliphate have not been mentioned only in Ghadir, but have also been mentioned on other occasions, one of which is Yawm al-Dar. According to him, many Shiite and Sunni scholars of hadith have cited this hadith so frequently that it counts as a mustafid hadith.[13]

See Also

Notes

  1. Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 2, p. 166; Ḥillī, Nahj al-ḥaq, p. 302; Mufīd, al-Fuṣūl al-mukhtāra, p. 96.
  2. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 2, p. 279; Ḥaskānī, Shawāhid al-tanzīl, vol. 1, p. 543.
  3. Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 2, p. 60-63; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 3, p. 50-54. Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr al-Qurʾān, vol. 6, p. 151-153.
  4. See: Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 2, p. 279-280.
  5. See: Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 3, p. 398.
  6. Hilālī, Kitāb Sulaym b. Qays, vol. 2, p. 779.
  7. Thaʿlabī, al-Kashf wa l-bayān, vol. 7, p. 182.
  8. Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 2, p. 283.
  9. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 1, p. 217.
  10. Baghawī, Maʿālim al-tanzīl, vol. 3, p. 481.
  11. See: Mufīd, al-Fuṣūl al-mukhtāra, p. 96; Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Ṭarāʾif, vol. 1, p. 21.
  12. See: Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 2, p. 279-280.
  13. Mufīd, Risālat fī maʿna l-mawlā, p. 39-40.

References

  • Amīnī, ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn al-. Al-Ghadīr fī l-Kitāb wa l-sunnat wa l-adab. Qom: Markaz al-Ghadīr li-l-Dirāsāt al-Islāmīyya, 1416 AH.
  • Baghawī, Ḥusayn b. Masʿūd al-. Maʿālim al-tanzīl fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Mahdī. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1420 AH.
  • Fakhr al-Rāzī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Tafsīr al-kabīr. Third edition. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1420 AH.
  • Ḥaskānī, ʿUbayd Allāh b. Aḥmad al-. Shawāhid al-Tanzīl li-qawāʿid al-tafḍīl. Tehran: Sāzmān-i Chāp wa Intishārāt-i Wizārat-i Irshād, 1411 AH.
  • Hilālī, Sulaym b. Qays al-. Kitāb Sulaym b. Qays. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir al-Anṣārī. Qom: Nashr al-Hādī, 1415 AH.
  • Ḥillī, Ḥasan b. Yūsuf al-. Nahj al-ḥaq. Qom: Muʾassisat dār al-Hijra, 1407 AH.
  • Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd. Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha. Qom: Kitābkhāna-yi Āyatollāh Marʿashī, 1404 AH.
  • Ibn Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1399 AH.
  • Ibn Kathīr, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. Al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1413 AH.
  • Ibn Kathīr, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. Tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1419 AH.
  • Ibn Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā. Al-Ṭarāʾif. Qom: Khayyām, 1400 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Fuṣūl al-mukhtāra. Qom: Kungira-yi Jahānī Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1413 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Risālat fī maʿna l-mawlā. Qom: Kungira-yi Jahānī Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1413 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Beirut: Dār Qāmūs al-Ḥadīth, [n.d].
  • Thaʿlabī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Kashf wa l-bayān ʿan tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Abū Muḥammad b. ʿĀshūr. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1422 AH.

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