Hammad b. Isa al-Juhani
Ḥammad b. ʿĪsā al-Juhanī, (Arabic: حمّاد بن عيسی الجهني) (d. 209/824-825) was an Imami hadith scholar and jurist of the 2nd/8th century.
|Hammad b. Isa al-Juhani|
|Full Name||Hammad b. 'Isa al-Juhani|
|Companion of||Imam al-Sadiq (a), Imam al-Kazim (a), Imam al-Rida (a), and Imam al-Jawad (a)|
|Wellknown Relatives||'Ubayda b. al-Sayfi al-Juhani (grandfather)|
|Place of Birth||Kufa|
|Place(s) of Residence||Kufa, Basra|
|Cause ofDeath/Martyrdom||Flood in Juhfa|
|Works||Kitab al-Zakat, Kitab al-Salat, Kitab al-Nawadir, and Masa'il al-tilmidh wa tasnifih|
|People of Consensus
He was a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a), Imam al-Kazim (a), Imam al-Rida (a), and Imam al-Jawad (a). More than 1,500 hadiths are quoted from Hammad in Shi'a hadith sources. Shi'a scholars of rijal have praised him as a trustworthy and truthful hadith transmitters. Most of his hadiths are related to fiqh, and some of them are on imamate and ethics.
Hammad passed away in 209/824-825 when he was more than ninety years old.
According to a hadith, Imam al-Kazim (a) prayed that Hammad could go to hajj fifty times, and the Imam's prayer was fulfilled. When Hammad was on his 51st hajj, he was drowned by a flood in Juhfa, and his body was buried near Medina.
Hammad lived during the imamate of Imam al-Sadiq (a), Imam al-Kazim (a), Imam al-Rida (a), and probably Imam al-Jawad (a), though we do not have any hadith quoted by him from Imam al-Rida (a) or Imam al-Jawad (a).
As a Hadith Transmitter
According to al-'Allama al-Hilli, Hammad was very careful and cautious in the transmission of hadiths. Because of this, although he had heard seventy hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a), he quoted only twenty hadiths from the Imam (a).
The hadiths quoted by Hammad can be found in both Shia and Sunni hadith collections. Shia scholars of rijal have praised him as a trustworthy and honest hadith transmitter. Al-Kashshi counts him among the People of Consensus, whose trustworthiness is accepted by all Shias.
Among Sunni scholars of rijal, Yahya b. Mu'in regards Hammad as "the righteous shaykh," but the others regard him as unreliable. However, Sunni hadith scholars have quoted Hammad's hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a), Hanzala b. Abi Sufyan, Sufyan al-Thawri, and Ibn Jurayh.
The name Hammad appears in the chains of transmission of more than 1,800 hadiths. This could be Hammad b. 'Isa or Hammad b. 'Uthman, and to determine which one is meant, one needs to check contextual indications. The name Hammad b. 'Isa appears in the chains of transmission of more than 1,036 hadiths, which shows the importance of Hammad b. 'Isa as a hadith transmitter.
Content of Hadiths
Studying the hadiths quoted by Hammad shows that he was more concerned with legal matters, though he quoted some hadiths on imamate and ethics as well.
Teachers and Students
He quoted hadiths from more than fifty hadith transmitters and mostly from Hariz b. 'Abd Allah al-Sajistani.
More than forty hadith transmitters, and more than all Ibrahim b. Hashim, quoted hadiths from Hammad directly.
Hammad produced several works including:
- Kitab al-Zakat
- Kitab al-Salat
- Kitab al-Nawadir
- Masa'il al-tilmidh wa tasnifih, containing moral advice, theological materials, and stories on human beings and animals.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from حماد بن عیسی جهنی in Farsi Wikishia.