Khalid b. Sa'id
|Khalid b. Sa'id|
|Full Name||Khalid b. Sa'id b. al-'As b. Umayya b. 'Abd Shams|
|Epithet||Najib Bani Umayya|
|Well-Known Relatives||Sa'id b. al-'As (father)|
|Place of Birth||Mecca|
|Place(s) of Residence||Mecca, Abyssinia, Medina, Yemen|
|Death/Martyrdom||13/634 or 14/635|
|Cause of Death/Martyrdom||Martyred in the Battle of Ajnadayn or battle of Marj al-Suffar|
|Presence at Ghazwas||Conquest of Mecca, Hunayn, Tabuk, Ta'if|
|Migration to||Abyssinia, Medina|
|Notable Roles||The Prophet's (s) agent in Yemen|
|Other Activities||One of companions of Imam 'Ali (a), opposition to the Saqifa Council, Not pledging allegiance with Abu Bakr|
Khālid b. Sa'īd b. al-'Āṣ b. Umayya b. 'Abd Shams (Arabic: خالِد بن سَعید بن العاص بن اُمَیَّة بن عَبدشَمس) was one of the first people who converted to Islam. He was a scribe (katib) of the Prophet Muhammad (s). He was the Holy Prophet's (s) agent in Yemen. After the Prophet's (s) demise, he resigned from this position and preferred not to work for the caliphs. Khalid b. Sa'id was one of the 12 people who did not pledge their allegiance with Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa; And this led to 'Umar b. Khattab, the second caliph, standing against him. There is a disagreement among historians over the date and place of his martyrdom.
He was from Quraysh and his kunya was Abu Sa'id. His father, known as Abu Uhayha, was a senior figure of Mecca and an opponent of the Prophet (s) who did not convert to Islam. His mother, Lubayna, known as Umm Khalid, was the daughter of Khabbab or Habbab b. 'Abd Yalil b. Nashib from Thaqif.
From the Viewpoint of Shiites
In Shiite sources of 'ilm al-rijal, Khalid b. Sa'id is considered as a companion of the Holy Prophet (s). He is mentioned by al-Shaykh al-Tusi in his book on 'ilm al-rijal. Khalid b. Sa'id is known as a respectable nobleman of Banu Umayya.
Conversion to Islam
Khalid b. Sa'id converted to Islam before his brothers. He converted to Islam when the Holy Prophet (s) was secretly calling people to Islam. He is mentioned as the third, fourth or fifth person who converted to Islam.
The reason why he converted to Islam was said to be that one night he saw in a dream that he was on the brink of a pit of fire, and his father was trying to throw him in the fire, but the Holy Prophet (s) rescued him. Khalid b. Sa'id found his dream to be a true one. He reported his dream to Abu Bakr, and he encouraged him to convert to Islam. He went to the Holy Prophet (s) in Ajyad, and converted to Islam.
The Tortures of Polytheists
When Sa'id b. al-'As who was an opponent of the Holy Prophet (s) learned that his son, Khalid, converted to Islam, he reproached him, cursed him and hit him hard by breaking his cane on his head and prohibited the rest of his family from talking with him. After that, Khalid went to the Holy Prophet (s) and accompanied him all the time. Sometimes he said prayers around Mecca on his own. Since Khalid b. Sa'id insisted on endorsing and following the Holy Prophet (s), his father imprisoned him and held him under the burning sunlight of Mecca. Khalid escaped the prison and hid in areas around Mecca.
Migration to Abyssinia
Given that there were two occasions on which Muslims migrated to Abyssinia, there is a disagreement about the time when Khalid b. Sa'id migrated there. Most historians hold that he migrated on the second occasion (that is, in 5 after bi'tha/ 613), and others took it to be on the first occasion.
Khalid b. Sa'id took his wife, Humayna or Umayma or Umayna bt. As'ad al-Khuza'i with him to Abyssinia. His son, Sa'id, and his daughter, Ama (Umm Khalid) were born and raised in Abyssinia, and Ama was later married to Zubayr b. 'Awwam.
In 7/628, Khalid b. Sa'id and some other migrants of Abyssinia returned to al-Hijaz, and they went to the Holy Prophet (s) in Khaybar when the Battle of Khaybar was over. The Holy Prophet (s) welcomed them and expressed his happiness by seeing them. He gave them shares of the booties of Khaybar, although they had not attended the battle. After that, Khalid b. Sa'id went to Medina together with the Holy Prophet (s) and other Muslims.
Companionship with the Holy Prophet (s)
The Holy Prophet's (s) Scribe
According to historians, Khālid b. Sa'id was a scribe of the Holy Prophet (s). He worked as a scribe in Mecca, before Hijra or migration to Medina. He is said to be the first person who wrote the phrase, “Bism Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim” (In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful). After migration to Medina, he transcribed the Holy Prophet's (s) letter to people of Ta'if and their representatives, and submitted the letter to the delegates of Thaqif. He also mediated peace negotiations between the delegates and the Holy Prophet (s) in Medina until they converted to Islam.
Combat with Apostates
After his return from Abyssinia, Khalid b. Sa'id accompanied the Holy Prophet (s) and other Muslims in the hajj of 'Umrat al-Qada', the Conquest of Mecca and battles of Hunayn, Ta'if and Tabuk. Khalid was frequently sent by the Holy Prophet (s) to carry out various missions; for example, when 'Amr b. Ma'di Yakrib apostatized Islam and rioted against Muslims, the Prophet (s) sent 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and an army of Muhajirun, including Khalid b. Sa'id as the leader of the army, to 'Amr and his people. After suppressing the riots and the escape of 'Amr b. Ma'di Karb, 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) commissioned Khalid to collect charities, taxes and zakat from people there, and told him to give a safety conduct and refuge to any fugitive who comes back and converts to Islam. After 'Ali's (a) return to Medina, 'Amr b. Ma'di Karb went to Khalid b. Sa'id and converted to Islam again.
The Prophet (s)'s Representative in Abyssinia
According to some hadiths, in Abyssinia, Khalid b. Sa'id was the the Holy Prophet (s) representative to marry Umm Habiba to him. This shows the respect the Holy Prophet (s) had for Khalid b. Sa'id.
The Holy Prophet's (s) Agent in Yemen
In the last years of the Holy Prophet (s) life, Khalid b. Sa'id was appointed as the ruler of the area between Najran and Zubayd by the Holy Prophet (s) after Badhan or Badham, the Iranian Muslim ruler of Yemen, died. This appointment seems to have occurred in 10/631, because Farwa b. Musayk al-Muradi and a delegate went to the Holy Prophet (s) in Medina that year, and the Holy Prophet (s) appointed Farwa as the ruler of his tribe (Murad) and Zubayd as well as the Madhhij tribe, and sent Khalid b. Sa'id b. al-'As to Yemen together with him as an agent for the collection of charities.
On one account, Khalid b. Sa'id was commissioned by the Prophet (s) to collect taxes in Yemen, and on another account, he was commissioned to collect taxes in Madhhij and was appointed as the agent of Sana'a. However, he was the Holy Prophet's (s) agent in Yemen until the demise of the Prophet (s).
In 10/631, Aswad 'Anasi (d. 11/632) claimed to be a prophet and rioted against Muslims. People of the Madhhij tribe followed him. When he found many followers and took over the entire lands of Yemen, he dismissed Khalid b. Sa'id from the areas governed by him.
After the Holy Prophet (s)
Refusal to Work for the Caliphs
After the Prophet's (s) demise, Khalid b. Sa'id and his brothers, Aban and 'Amr, one of whom was the Holy Prophet (s) agent in Bahrain and other his agent in Tayma' and Khaybar, returned to Medina, announcing that they would not work for anyone after the Holy Prophet (s).
Opposition to the Saqifa Council
Khalid b. Sa'id arrived in Medina after the story of Saqifa and Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa's election as the caliph. He was one of the 12 people who refused to pledge their allegiance to Abu Bakr. His brother, Aban, joined him in doing so. Khalid b. Sa'id said that “we will follow the Banu Hashim”. He believed in the caliphate of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and wanted to pledge his allegiance to him, addressing him by the saying: “I swear to God that no one among people is more competent as the Prophet's (s) successor than you”.
When 'Ali (a) pledged his allegiance to Abu Bakr, Banu Hashim and the rest of his advocates, such as Khalid b. Sa'id, also pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr.
'Umar's Hostility to Khalid
Khalid b. Sa'id's refusal to pledge his allegiance to Abu Bakr made 'Umar b. Khattab hostile to him. Later in many cases, 'Umar appealed to his refusal and dismissed him from different positions. For example, in 13/634, when Abu Bakr wanted to send the army of Islam to Syria, he appointed Khalid b. Sa'id as the commander of the army and gave him the flag. But 'Umar reminded Abu Bakr of Khalid's refusal to pledge his allegiance to him and his remarks in opposition to Abu Bakr and insisted that Khalid should be dismissed. Abu Bakr dismissed Khalid before the army departed. Khalid returned the flag with self-esteem and said: “I swear to God that your appointment did not make me happy and being dismissed by you did not make me sad”.
Combat with Romans
However, Abu Bakr commissioned Khalid to stay in Tayma', a city in Syria (Syria), and organize Arabs in the area for a battle, admitting only those who were not apostates and not fighting except those who fight them. A huge number of people were organized by Khalid. Romans heard the news about his camp and plans. So Romans organized some Arabs of Syria, including the tribes of Bahra', Sulayh, Tanukh, Ghassan, Kalb, Lakhm and Judham, to fight them.
Khalid b. Sa'id wrote a letter in this regard to Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr ordered him to move forward cautiously. Khalid b. Sa'id launched an attack and dispersed those tribes and camped in their location. All people in those tribes converted to Islam. A Roman commander, called Bahan, fought Khalid b. Sa'id. In this battle, some Romans were killed and the rest were defeated. Khalid b. Sa'id asked Abu Bakr for aids. Abu Bakr sent aid forces to him under the command of Dhu l-Kila' and 'Akrama b. Abi Jahl. He was also aided by Walid b. 'Uqba's army.
There are different historical accounts of when and where Khalid b. Sa'id was martyred. On one account, he was martyred in the Battle of Ajnadayn with Romans and people of Syria (13/634) in the period of Abu Bakr. On another account, he was martyred in the Battle of Marj al-Suffar in Syria. This battle occurred in the early period of 'Umar's caliphate in 14/635 or in the period of Abu Bakr in 13/634.
On another account, it was Khalid's son who was martyred in the event of Marj al-Suffar and Khalid himself escaped the battlefield. When Khalid fought the Romans and chased Bahan to Marj al-Suffar near Damascus, he was surrounded by Bahan's army. Bahan attacked him and killed Sa'id, Khalid's son, and his companies. When Khalid heard this, he escaped and retreated to Dhu l-Marwa. Abu Bakr told them to stay there so that he can take care of everything. There are different accounts of the dates of the battles of Ajnadayn and Marj al-Suffar and Yarmuk. According to Ibn Qutayba, Khalid died in the Battle of Yarmuk.
- The material for this article has been mainly taken from خالد بن سعید in Farsi WikiShia.