List of Works by al-Sharif al-Murtada
Al-Sayyid al-Murtaḍā (Arabic: السيد المرتضى) also known as Al-Sharif al-Murtada, (b. 355/965 - d. 436/1044) was the elder brother of al-Sayyid al-Radi and a Shi'a jurist, Marja' and theologians after his master al-Shaykh al-Mufid. He had several works in different field of Islamic studies including jurisprudence, hadith, theology, and etc.
List of Works
- Ibṭāl al-amal bi akhbār al-aḥād
- Ibṭāl al-qīyās
- Ajwaba al-masā'il al-qur'ānīya
- Ajwaba masā'il mutafariqa min al-ḥadīth wa ghayruh
- Aḥkām ahl al-akhira
- Al-I'tirāḍ alā man yathbut ḥudūd al-ajsām
- Aqāwīl al-arab fī al-jāhilīyya
- Al-Intiṣār which al-Tusi and Ibn Shahrashub called it al-Infirādāt fī al-fiqh
- Inqādh al-bashar min al-qaḍā wa al-qadar or Inqādh al-bashar min al-jabr wa al-qadar or Iqādh al-bashar
- Al-Barq which al-Tusi and Ibn Shahrashub called it al-Marmūq fi awsāf al-burūq
- Tatabbu' al-abyāt al-latī takallama alayhā ibn junay fī ithbāt al-ma'ānī li al-mutanabbī
- Tatimma anwā' al-a'rāḍ min jam' abī rashīd al-nayshāburī
- Tafsīr al-āyāt al-mutashābihāt fī al-qur'ān
- Tafsīr āya Qur'an 5:93
- Tafsīr āya Qur'an 6:151
- Tafsīr al-khuṭbat al-shaqshaqīya
- Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-karīm, najiza minhu Sūra al-Fatiḥa wa 125 āya min bidāya Sūra al-Baqara
- Tafsīr al-qaṣīda mīmīyya min she'rihī
- Tafḍīl al-anbīyā' alā al-malā'ika
- Taqrīb al-uṣūl
- Takmilat al-gharar wa al-durar, it is interpreted as "Takmila amalī murtaḍa"
- Tanzīh al-anbīyā'
- Jumal al-'ilm wa l-'amāl
- Al-Jawāb an al-shubahāt fi khabar al-ghadir
- Jawāb al-karājakī fī fisād al-adad
- Jawāb al-mulḥida fī qidam al-ālam min aqwāl al-munajjimīn
- Jawāz al-wilāya min jihat al-zalimīn
- Al-ḥudūd wa al-ḥaqa'iq
- Ḥukm al-bā' fī āya wamsaḥū bi ru'ūsikum
- Al-Khuṭbat al-muqmaṣa
- Al-Khilāf fī uṣūl al-fiqh
- Dīwān-i shi'rih, al-Tusi believes his poems was around twenty thousands verse.
- Al-Dharī'a ilā uṣūl al-sharī'a
- Al-Radd alā aṣḥāb al-adad
- Al-Radd alā Yaḥyāb. uday al-naṣrānī fī i'tirāḍ dalīl al-mojid fī ḥudūth al-ajsām
- Al-Radd alā Yaḥyā b. uday al-naṣrānī fīmā yatanāhī
- Al-Radd alā Yaḥyā b. uday al-naṣrānī fī mas'alati samāha ṭabī'at al-mumkin
- Al-Risālat al-bāhira fī al-itrat al-ṭāhira
- Al-Shāfī fī al-imāma
- Sharḥ qaṣīda al-sayyid al-Ḥimyarī al-bā'iya al-ma'rūfa bi al-qaṣīdat al-mudhhiba
- Sharḥ masā'il al-khilāf
- Al-Shihāb fī al-shayb wa al-shibāb
- Ṭayf al-khīyāl
- Adam takhṭa'at al-āmil bi khabar al-wāḥīd
- Adam wujūb ghasl al-rijlayn fi al-ṭahāra
- Illat imtinā' alā min muḥāribat al-ghāṣibin
- Illat khudhlān Ahl al-Bayt (a)
- Illat mubāyi'at Alī (a)
- Al-Amal ma' al-sulṭān
- Ghurar al-farā'id wa durar al-qalā'id, known as Al-Amali of al-Sharif al-Murtada
- Al-Farāi'ḍ fī qaṣr al-ru'yā wa ibṭāl al-qawl bi-l adad, some named it Mukhtasar al-farāi'd or Naqs al-ru'ya
- Al-fiqh al-milkī
- Qawl al-Nabī: nīyyat al-mu'min khayr min amalih
- Al-Kalām alā man ta'allaqa bi qawlihi ta'āla: Wa laqad karramnā banī ādam (Qur'an 17:70)
- Mā tafarrada bihī al-imāmīyya
- Majmū'at fī funūn min 'ilm al-kalām
- Al-Muḥkam wa al-mutashābih, Ibn Shahrashub mentioned it is from Sayyid but it may not be true
- Masā'il ayāt
- Masā'il ahl Miṣr awlā, khums masā'il
- Masā'il ahl Miṣr al-thānīya, tis' masā'il
- Masā'il al-bādirīyāt, arba' wa ishrūn mas'ala
- Al-Masā'il tabānīyāt, ashrat masā'il
- Al-Masā'il al-jurjānīya
- Al-Masā'il al-ḥalabīyat al-awlā, thalātha masā'il
- Al-Masā'il al-ḥalabīya al-thanīya, thalātha masā'il
- Al-Masā'il al-ḥalabīya al-thalitha, thalāthūna masā'il
- Masā'il al-khiālf fī al-fiqh, which is not completed
- Al-Masā'il al-damishqiyya, which is thirty mas'ala and also named al-masā'il al-nāṣirīya
- Al-Masā'il al-rāzīya, khams ashrata mas'ala
- Al-Masā'il al-rasīyat al-awlā
- Al-Masā'il al-rasīyat al-thānīya
- Al-Masā'il al-ramlīyāt, sab' masā'il
- Al-Masā'il al-salārīya
- Al-Masā'il al-ṣaydāwīya
- Al-Masā'il al-ṭabarīya, 207 mas'ala
- Al-Masā'il al-ṭarāblusīyat al-awlā, 17 mas'ala
- Al-Masā'il al-ṭarāblusīyat al-thānīyā, 10 mas'ala
- Al-Masā'il al-ṭarāblusīyat al-thalitha, 15 mas'ala
- Al-Masā'il al-ṭusīya, which is known as Al-Masa'il al-barmakīya, 5 mas'ala
- Al-Masā'il al-muḥammadiya, khams masa'il
- Masā'il mufradāt, around 100 mas'ala
- Mufradāt min uṣul al-fiqh
- Al-Masā'il al-muṣilīyāt al-awlā
- Al-Masā'il al-muṣilīyāt al-thāniya, 9 ma'ala
- Al-Masā'il al-muṣilīyāt al-thālitha, 110 mas'ala
- Masā'il al-mīyafārqīyāt
- Al-Masā'il al-nāṣirīya fī al-fiqh
- Al-Masā'il al-wāsiṭīya, 100 mas'ala
- Mas'alat fī al-ijmā'
- Mas'alat fī al-irāda
- Mas'alat fī irth al-awlād
- Mas'alat fī istithnā'
- Mas'alat fī istilām al-ḥajar
- Mas'alat fī al-i'tirāḍ alā asḥāb al-hayulā
- Mas'alat fī al-imāma fī dalīl al-sifāt
- Mas'alat fī al-ta'kīd
- Mas'alat fī tawārud al-adilla
- Mas'alat fī al-tawba
- Mas'alat fī al-ḥusn wa al-qubḥ al-aqlī
- Mas'alat fī khalq al-a'māl
- Mas'alat fī dalīl al-khiṭāb
- Mas'alat fī al-radd alā al-munajjimīn
- Mas'alat fī al-'iṣma
- Mas'alat fī qatl al-sulṭān
- Mas'alat fī kawnihī ta'ālā 'aliman
- Mas'alat fī al-mut'a
- Mas'alat fī man yatawallā ghusl al-'imām
- Mas'alat fī al-manāmāt
- Mas'alat fī nafy al-ru'yā
- Mas'alat fī wajh al-tikrār fī āyatayn
- Mas'alat wajīzat fī al-ghayba
- Al-Miṣbāḥ fī uṣūl al-fiqh, which is uncompleted
- Muqadima fī al-uṣūl al-i'tiqādīya
- Al-Muqni' fī al-ghayba
- Al-Mulakhkhaṣ fī al-kalām, which is uncompleted
- Munāzirāt al-khuṣūm wa kayfīyāt al-istidlāl alayhim
- Al-Man' fī tafḍīl al-malā'ikat alā al-anbīyā'
- Al-Mawḍih an wajhi i'jāz al-Qur'ān, which is called Kitāb al-ṣarfat
- Nafy al-ḥukm bi adam al-dalīl alayh
- Al-Naqṣ alā ibn junay fī al-ḥikāyat wa al-muḥkī
- Nikāḥ Amīr al-Mu'minīn ibnatihī min Umar
- Wajh al-'ilm bi tanāwul al-wa'īd kafat al-kuffar
- Al-Wilāyat al-jā'ir or al-wilāyat min qibal al-zālimīn
The most important ones are:
Al-Dhari'a ila usul al-shari'a
- Main article: Al-Dhari'a ila usul al-shari'a
This book has been written about Twelver Shia principles of jurisprudence in fourteen chapters, each of which has some sections and most important topics included are, address, command and prohibition, the general and the specific, the absolute and specified, the concise and the clear, abrogation, action, consensus, analogical deduction, Ijtihad, emulation, avoidance and allowance, the disagreeing and the the principle of continuity. This book is important from two aspects, first is that it is the first complete book in Twelver Shia principles of jurisprudence.
In this book, even though al-Sayyid al-Murtada has only mentioned the opinions of Sunni scholars such as Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi'i and Juba'is including Abu 'Ali, Abu Hashim, Abu al-Hasan Basri and Nazzam, Abu al-'Abbas b. Shurayh, Abu Bakr Farsi, Qifal, Abu al-Qasim Balkhi and as such, but since he has expressed a reliable and firm opinion in every issue of Usul, the book can be considered the beginning of the independence of the discipline of Shi'a Usul.
Secondly, from this aspect that as al-Sayyid al-Murtada says in the introduction of the book, he has separated the issues of the principles of fiqh from the principles of religion while in the books written before this book, the issues of the scholars of Usul were mixed together. In this book, in every issue, Sayyid has mentioned the views of different scholars and comprehensively reviewed their arguments and then has criticized them and finally has proved his opinion supporting it by sufficient research, while in some cases, he has considered others' opinions correct and has approved of their arguments.
- Main article: Al-Intisar (book)
It is a book on jurisprudence, including the rulings definitely or supposedly specific to Twelver Shi'a. This book contains 319 jurisprudential issues and is important historically and scientifically, since it is the oldest Shi'a reference in jurisprudence which includes comparative issues and has mentioned different opinions. It has also established Twelver Shia jurisprudence on firm proofs and later jurists such as al-Shaykh al-Tusi, al-'Allama al-Hilli and others have followed it and have built their works in jurisprudence upon it. In this book, al-Sharif al-Murtada has mentioned some of his works such as Masa'il Abi 'Abd Allah b. al-Tiban, Masa'il al-khilaf, Masa'il Ahl al-Musil, Masa'il al-Tirablisiyyat and Usul al-fiqh. Al-Sayyid al-Murtada wrote al-Intisar after 420/1029.
- Main article: Al-Nasiriyyat
This book contains 207 topics in jurisprudence and beliefs. Al-Sayyid al-Murtada wrote this book to explain, criticize and strengthen the jurisprudential discussions of his forefather Hasan Utrush, the author of Daylam and Tabaristan. The author of Adab al-Murtada says that, "it is famous that Hasan Utrush was Zaydi, but many Twelver Shia scholars have regarded him Twelver Shia; but, according to this very treatise, he was not Twelver Shia, since in most secondary issues and many ideological issues, he has an opinion different to Twelver Shia. This book is important since firstly spoke of the religion of al-Nasir and his invitation Daylam regions and secondly has compiled the beliefs of different sects especially Zaydi and Twelver Shia in one place. In this book, al-Sayyid al-Murtada has mentioned some of his works such as: al-Khilaf, Masa'il usul al-fiqh wa al-'Adad and Tanzih al-anbiya'.
Al-Shafi fi l-imama
- Main article: Al-Shafi fi l-imama wa ibtal hujaj al-'amma
Al-Shafi fi al-imama wa ibtal hujaj al-'amma is among the most important theological books compiled by al-Sayyid al-Murtada on Imamate and answering questions about it. Al-Sayyid al-Murtada wrote this book to answer the questions of Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar al-Mu'tazili about Imamate. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi wrote a summary of this book called Talkhis al-shafi; Abu l-Husayn Basri rejected it in Naqd al-shafi and Abu ya'la Sallar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz rejected Basri's book in Naqd al-naqd 'ala al-naqd while al-Sayyid al-Murtada was alive.
Inqadh al-bashar min al-jabr wa al-qadar
- Main article: Inqadh al-bashar min al-jabr wa al-qadar (book)
It is a small treatise on theology in which al-Sayyid has reviewed the issue of divine decree and ordinance using an eloquent speech style and mentioned many verses from the Qur'an for his argument. He also reviewed the history of this issue since the time of Ma'bad al-Juhani and Abu l-Aswad al-Du'ali until his time.
Al-Muhkam wa al-mutashabih
In this treatise issues such as abrogating and abrogated, the obvious and the ambiguous, the general from which some cases are made specified, distortion in reading, the difference between total and partial abandoning have been discussed. Bibliographers have attributed this treatise to al-Sayyid al-Murtada, but the first page of the treatise clarifies that all of this treatise has been quoted from the commentary of Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Hafs al-Nu'mani who lived before al-Sayyid al-Murtada; therefore, there would be no reason for attributing the treatise to al-Sayyid except that he abrogated the treatise.
- Main article: Tanzih al-anbiya' wa l-a'imma (book)
Tanzih al-Anbiya' is a theological book written by al-Sayyid al-Murtada to prove the infallibility of the prophets (a) and Imams (a). In this book, al-Sayyid al-Murtada has comprehensively discussed the infallibility of the prophets (a), but about the infallibility of Imams (a), he has referred to his al-Shafi fi al-Imama. The book is organized in form of question and answer. Although Tanzih al-anbiya discusses an ideological issue, due to its syntactical, lexical and rhetorical discussions, it shall also be classified among the literary books.
This is a short treatise about divine attributes, the prophethood, Choosing the prophets, promise and punishment, intercession, punishment in the grave, destruction of the world, scale, Al-Sirat, paradise and hell.
Al-Wilaya 'an al-ja'ir or al-wilaya min qibal al-zalimin
It is a small treatise which al-Sayyid al-Murtada wrote in 415/1024 for the minister, Abu l-Qasim Husayn b. Ali al-Maghribi. This treatise is about the ruling of Wilaya for tyrant caliphs which has been discussed and questioned by Twlever Shi'a. In this treatise, al-Sayyid al-Murtada has explained what a governor is permitted and not permitted to do on behalf of the tyrant.
Al-Muqna' fi al-ghayba
- Main article: Al-Muqna' fi al-ghayba
In this treatise, al-Sayyid al-Murtada has answered the question of the occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a) about which Twelver Shi'a have always been attacked for, have defended and have written many treatises.
Al-Masa'il al-Rassiyya al-'ula
It is a hand-written treatise containing al-Sayyid's answer to twenty eight questions raised by Abu al-Husayn al-Muhsin b. Muhammad b. al-Nasir al-Husayni al-Rassi. The questioner, as described by Ibn Idris and his questions show, has been an astute scholar, an intuitive jurist, compelling the opponent and a debater no one like al-Sayyid al-Murtada could win against his debates. Al-Sayyid al-Murtada himself acknowledged and praised him. This treatise contains issues on jurisprudence and theology and therein, al-Sayyid has referred the answer of some of the questions to his Masa'il fi usul al-fiqh wa al-masa'il al-matlabiyyat. Al-Sayyid al-Murtada wrote this treatise in 428/1036 and it is very important since it includes his latest views in jurisprudence and theology.
Al-Masa'il al-Rassiyya al-thaniya
This treatise was meant to answer the questions of Abu l-Husayn al-Muhsin b. Muhammad b. al-Nasir al-Husayni al-Rassi which was received by al-Sayyid after the above-mentioned treatise, so he added it to it. This treatise discusses five topics. The first issue is in jurisprudence and the rest are in jurisprudence and theology. This treatise is among the latest works of al-Sayyid and thus demonstrated his final opinions and views.
Mas'ala fi al-I'tirad 'ala man yuthbit qidam al-'ajsam
In this treatise, al-Sayyid has referred to his al-Mulakhkhas fi al-'usul. This treatise is mere philosophical in nature.
Ibtal al-'amal bi khabar al-'ahad
Agha Buzurg transcribed this treatise from the handwritten copy of Shaykh Shahid who transcribed it from his grandfather's handwritten copy of the original manuscript of al-Sharif al-Murtada. The author of Adab al-Murtada says, "I have a copy which has two pages in which Sayyid has referred to al-Masa'il al-halabiyyat wa al-masa'il al-tabaniyyat. In this treatise, some transmitters of hadiths such as Tatari, Ibn Sama'a and others among Ghulat, Mujassima, Khattabiya, Mushabbiha and Mujbira have been criticized.
Muqaddama fi al-'usul
Fi ma yatawalla ghusl al-Imam
It is a small treatise in one page about this belief that an Imam would not be ritually bathed by anyone other than anther Imam. Al-Sayyid al-Murtada regarded this belief incorrect, and even considered it impossible. In this treatise, the issue has been referred to al-Dhakhira.
Al-'Adad or al-Radd 'ala ashab al-'adad
In this treatise, al-Sayyid has rejected this opinion that fasting can be accomplished by the number (thirty days) and has declared moon-sight as the criteria for accomplishment of fasting.
Mas'ala wajiza fi al-ghayba
This treatise has been written about the problem of the Occultation of the Awaited Imam (a). There is no difference between the arguments al-Sayyid has brought here and those mentioned in al-Muqna' fi l-ghayba.
It includes the questions Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Malik al-Tabbani asked al-Sayyid; and it is seen in the questions that Abu 'Abd Allah has been a knowledgeable theologian and even more knowledgeable than others who asked al-Sayyid questions. He has asked, "why Twelver Shi'a have rejected Ijma' (consensus) and Qiyas (analogical deduction)?"; "why al-Sayyid himself does not consider Khabar al-Wahid (solitary report) a proof whereas by abandoning the report, the base of religious rulings would be lost?"
The number of poems of Sayyid al-Murtada, as some historians say, reaches twenty thousand and through the books of Tarajim, it can be understood that in some ages, different authors have accessed certain versions of it.
Sharh Qasida al-Sayyid al-Humayri
The mentioned Qasida (ode) has been composed in eulogy of Imam Ali b. Abi Talib (a). In this commentary, Sayyid has spoken about the conduct and virtues of Imam Ali (a) and has explained the wording of the ode and also mentioned some literary and historical events alongside the explanation. Al-Sayyid wrote this commentary for his son.
Al-Ghurar wa al-durar (Amali al-Murtada)
- Main article: Al-Amali (by al-Sharif al-Murtada)
Al-Amali al-Murtada is a book on the commentary of Clear and Ambiguous verses and explaining the hadiths difficult to understand. This book has also been called al-Amali fi al-tafsir, Al-Ghurar wa al-durar, Gurar al-fawa'id wa al-durar al-qala'id, al-Tafsir, Majalis al-ta'wilat and Majalis kashf al-ayat. According to AbuyAli Ja'fari, the contemporary jurist with al-Sayyid al-Murtada and his student, Sayyid finished this book in Jumada I 413/August 1022.