- This article is about the historical event in the 9/631. For the verse about the incident, see al-Mubahala Verse.
Mubāhala (Arabic: مُباهَلَة) means cursing and damning each other. Two people or two parties, who believe they are right, supplicate before God and ask Him to curse the liar so that everyone knows who is right. Thus, the Prophet (s) suggested Christians of Najran to do mubahala and they accepted; however, on the day they had agreed upon earlier, they refused to do mubahala since they saw that the Prophet (s) came with closest members of his family, who were his daughter, Fatima al-Zahra (a), his son-in-law, Imam 'Ali (a), his grandsons, Hasan (a) and Husayn (a), and thus Christians understood his truthfulness. This way the Prophet (s) became victorious in this event.
The occasion of the Prophet's (s) mubahala with Christians of Najran is not only a sign for the truth of the Prophet's (s) claim [i.e. inviting to Islam] but also showing the position of his family members since he introduced them alone among all his companions and relatives. Therefore, that event is among the merits of the Ahl al-Bayt (a). The encounter of mubahala happened on Dhu al-Hijja 24, 9/631. However, some have reported it on 25th.
When the Prophet (s) wrote letters to rulers of different countries and religious centers, he (s) also wrote a letter to the Bishop of Najran, in which he (s) asked the people of Najran to accept Islam. Christians decided to send a delegation to Medina to talk to the Prophet (s).
The delegation included a group of more than ten noblemen of the people of Najran led by three people who were 'Aqib, Sayyid, and Abu Haritha who came to Medina. The delegation talked with the Prophet (s) in the mosque of the Prophet (s). After both parties insisted on their rightfulness, they decided to end the dispute through mubahala; therefore, they decided to prepare for mubahala the other day outside Medina in the desert.
The morning of the day appointed for mubahala, the Prophet (s) went to Imam 'Ali's (a) house, took the hand of Imam al-Hasan (a), held Imam al-Husayn (a) up in his other arm and asked Imam 'Ali (a) and Lady Fatima (s) to come with him out of Medina for mubahala. When Christians saw the Prophet (s), A