Mulla Ahmad Naraqi
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|Full Name||Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi b. Abi Dhar al-Naraqi|
|Well-Known As||Mulla Ahmad al-Naraqi, Fadil Naraqi|
|Well-Known Relatives||Muhammad Mahdi al-Naraqi|
|Studied in||Naraq, Kashan, Najaf|
|Death||23th Rabi' II, 1245/22th October 1829|
|Burial Place||Shrine of Imam Ali (a), Najaf|
|Professors||Mulla Mahdi al-Naraqi, Sayyid Mahdi Bahr al-'Ulum, Mirza Muhammad Mahdi al-Musawi al-Shahristani, ...|
|Students||Al-Shaykh Murtada al-Ansari, Aqa Muhammad Baqir Hizar Jaribi, ...|
|Works||Mi'raj al-sa'ada, 'Awa'id al-ayyam min muhimmat al-ahkam, Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a, ...|
|Leading people against Russian|
Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Mahdi b. Abī Dhar al-Narāqī (Arabic: احمد بن محمد مهدی بن ابی ذر نراقی), or Mulla Aḥmad al-Narāqī (Persian: ملا احمد نراقی) known as Fāḍil al-Narāqī (Persian: فاضل نراقی) (b. 1185/1771-1772 – d. 1245/1829) was son of Mulla Mahdi al-Naraqi. He was among Shia scholars of thirteen century AH. He was born in Naraq and passed primary educations with his father. He then went to Iraq and benefitted from the scholars there. He studied with teachers including Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi Bahr al-'Ulum, Mirza Mahdi al-Shahristani, Shaykh Ja'far Kashif al-Ghita' and the author of Riyad and after his father passed away, he became the sole authority for the people of his hometown.
Fadil Naraqi joined with people during the invasion of Russians to Iran and taking some regions and led people's demonstrations.
Mulla Ahmad was born in 1185/1771 in Naraq. He passed primary and first level of seminary education in Kashan before his father when he was a teenager and soon passed scientific levels and began teaching Ma'alim and Mutawwal. In 1205/1790-1791, he went to the holy cities in Iraq with his father and benefitted from teachers there. After he achieved the level of Ijtihad, he began teaching, discussion and compilation of different works.
After his father passed away in 1209/1795, inevitably Mulla Ahmad came back to Kashan and became the sole authority there.
On 23th Rabi' II, 1245/22th October 1829, he passed away due to cholera which prevailed in Naraq, Kashan and surrounding areas. His body was taking to Najaf and was buried beside the grave of his father, behind the head of Imam Ali (a).
Mulla Ahmad al-Naraqi had two sons:
- His father, Mulla Mahdi al-Naraqi
- Sayyid Mahdi Bahr al-'Ulum
- Mirza Muhammad Mahdi al-Musawi al-Shahristani
- Shaykh Ja'far Kashif al-Ghita'
- Sayyid Ali al-Tabataba'i (Sahib Riyad)
Some great scholars benefited from the presence of Fadil al-Naraqi including:
- Al-Shaykh Murtada al-Ansari
- Aqa Muhammad Baqir Hizar Jaribi
- His brother, Muhammad Mahdi b. Muhammad Mahdi al-Naraqi (d. 1286 AH), known as Aqa Buzurg
- Sayyid Muhammad Shafi' Husayni Japalaqi
- Muhammad Hasan Jasbi
- Haj Mawla Muhammad, titled as 'Abd al-Sahib, grandson of al-Muhaqqiq al-Qummi
- Brother of Haj Mirza Abu l-Qasim Kashani
His Scientific Position
Mulla Ahmad al-Naraqi had a special position among scholars of recent centuries. He was among top scholars of his time in different Islamic sciences such as fiqh, Usul al-fiqh, Hadith, Rijal, Diraya, Mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, kalam, ethics, Arabic literature and poetry.
There are several works left after him including:
Books on Fiqh
- Al-At'ima wa l-ashriba
- Asrar al-hajj
- Al-Risala al-'amaliyya
- Al-Rasa'il wa l-masa'il
- Hashiya al-rawda al-bahiyya
- Risala l-rida'
- Risala fi munjizat al-marid
- 'Awa'id al-ayyam min muhimmat al-ahkam
- Al-Qada' wa l-shahadat
- Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a
- Manasik al-hajj
- Wasilat al-najat
- Hidayat al-Shi'a
- Tadhkirat al-ahbab
Books on Usul al-Fiqh
Books on Mathematics and Astronomy
- Sharh muhassal al-hay'a
- Sharh rasa'il al-hisab
- Hashiya akr thawdhusius, Marginal notes on Tahrir akr of Mulla Mahdi Naraqi
His Books on Philosophy, Ethics, etc.
- Sayf al-umma wa burhan al-milla
- Mi'raj al-sa'ada
- Diwan Safa'i Naraqi
- Taqdis or Mathnawi Lisan al-Ghayb or Mathnawi shifa'i
- Mushkilat al-'ulum
- Sharh hadith jasad al-mayyit
The Software of the Library of Fadilayn Naraqi
Following a suggestion by some top scholars of Naraq and the support of the scholars in the seminary of Qom for acknowledgment of the scientific position of Mulla Muhammad Mahdi al-Naraqi and Mulla Ahmad al-Naraqi and the order of the commemoration congress for Fadilayn Naraqi, a software was made and distributed by the Computer Research Center of Islamic Sciences (Noor).
Mulla Mahdi was talented in poetic devices and had the pen name of Safa'i. Most of his poems were ethical, romantic and mystic.
He was competent in Arabic, Hebrew and Latin and his knowledge about different sciences helped him compile various books. Sayf al-umma wa burhan al-milla which is written to answer questions of the British pastor Henry Martin shows his knowledge in Christianity and his caution in answering deviated thoughts.
His Political Activities
Al-Naraqi lived during the rule of Qajar, especially the time of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. At that time, Russians had taken some areas from the north of Iran and treated the people there the worst possible way.
According to the author of Tarikh siyasi wa diplomasi, political activities of Mulla Ahmad al-Naraqi beside the activities of other clergymen of his time helped influencing on the declaration of war by Iran against Russian forces and eventually at the end of Muharram 1242/1826, areas given to Russia based on Gulistan treaty, were taken by Iran.
The three day congress for acknowledgment of Fadilayn Naraqi was held in Qom, Kashan and Naraq in May 22-25, 2002. In this congress which was held to acknowledge the scientific, ethical, political and social positions of these two famous Shia scholars, Mulla Muhammad Mahdi al-Naraqi and Mulla Ahmad al-Naraqi and there many teachers and scholars of university and seminary attended; some of them gave lecture and some others presented their papers.
The material for this article is mainly taken from ملا احمد نراقی in Farsi Wikishia.