Nahj al-haqq wa kashf al-sidq (book)
|Nahj al-haqq wa kashf al-sidq|
|Original title||نَهج الحَقّ و کَشف الصِّدق|
|Publisher||Dar al-Kutub al-Lubnani|
Nahj al-ḥaqq wa kashf al-ṣidq (Arabic: نَهج الحَقّ و کَشف الصِّدق) is a theological book by al-'Allama al-Hilli (d. 726/1325). It is one the most argumentative theological books of Shi'a and has explained differences of Sunni theology with the Qur'an and the tradition of the Prophet (s), in roots of faith and branches, and proves rightfulness of Shi'a with strong reasons. In Nahj al-haqq, in addition to theological topics, some jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence topics are also discussed.
- Main article: Al-'Allama al-Hilli
Abu Mansur Jamal al-Din Hasan b. Yusuf b. Mutahhar al-Hilli ( Arabic: ابومنصور جمال الدین حسن ابن یوسف ابن مطهّر الحلّي) known as al-'Allama al-Hilli, is one of the greatest Shi'a scholars. After the demise of al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli in 676/1277 who was marja' of Shi'a people, they found al-'Allama al-Hilli suitable for becoming marja', so he took the leadership and became marja' at the age of 28. His debates and writings convinced the king Muhammad Khudabanda to convert to Shi'a Islam; which led to the spread of Shi'a beliefs in Iran. Al-Allama al-Hilli has many works on jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence, theology, philosophy, logic, supplications, and other fields of Islamic studies.
Purpose of Writing
After king Muhammad Khudabanda converted to Shi'a, he invited al-'Allama al-Hilli to the capital and requested him to write a book for him describing rational and transmitted reasons of Shi'a; therefore al-'Allama al-Hilli wrote Nahj al-haqq wa kashf al-sidq and presented it to the king.
Chapter one: Perception
This chapter contains seven discussions such as:
- Perceivable thing are origins of beliefs
- Conditions of vision
- Necessity of vision when its conditions are fulfilled
- Impossibility of vision without fulfillment of its conditions
- God is not visible
Chapter two: Logics
In this chapter the author discusses seven topics such as:
- Manner of knowing the result in a theorem
- Necessity of result of ration
- Necessity of knowing God by intellect.
Chapter three: Attributes of God
This chapter contains eleven topics:
- Power of God
- God doesn't have body
- God is not in a direction
- God does not have any partner
- God's words
- Justice: this topic consists of nineteen subjects in which the author discusses the reasons of divine justice, rejects expression and reasons of determinism and discusses goodness and badness of acts, gaining will, responsibility, etc.
Chapter four: Prophecy
This chapter is mostly about the prophecy of the Prophet of Islam (s). It contains three topics:
- Proofs for the prophecy of the Prophet (s)
- Infallibility of prophets
- Pureness of the ancestors of the Prophet (s)
Chapter five: Imamate
Contains four topics:
- Necessity of infallibility of imam
- Imam must be the most virtuous among people
- Way of knowing imam
- Specifying imam: in this topic al-'Allama al-Hilli first with ration, then with transmission, demonstrates the immediate cailaphate of Imam 'Ali (a). In his transmitted reasons, which is divided to two parts, the author first cites 84 verses of the Qur'an, then 27 hadiths from the Prophet (s) about imamate of Imam 'Ali (a). After that, virtues of Imam 'Ali (a) and some vices of the three caliphs are mentioned. At the end, the author mentions some vices of Mu'awiya and some other companions. He also has a discussion about activities of Aisha.
Chapter six: Resurrection
In this chapter al-'Allama al-Hilli discusses only two of resurrection topics:
- Proof(s) for the bodily resurrection
- Deserving to receive reward or punishment
Chapter seven: Principles of Jurisprudence
Al-'Allama al-Hilli divides this chapter into two topics:
- Obligation: law, kinds of obligation, unbelievers are also audiences of obligation, removal and impossibility of obligation
- Sources of jurisprudence: the "Qur'an", "hadith", ijma' (consensus), qiyas, istihsan, and ijtihad.
Chapter eight: Jurisprudence
In 17 topics, each topic is about one chapter of jurisprudence. In each topic the author expresses the differences of Shi'a and other Islamic sects in Islamic rules.
Since the author has discussed the reasons without any prejudice and after citing all the beliefs, he has chosen what was according to reason as his belief, the book influences the non-biased readers.
Publications and Translation
The book has been published several times:
- In 1344/1925, Baghdad in 203 pages.
- In 1379/1959, Matba'a Dar al-Salam, Baghdad, in 590 pages.
- In 1402/1981, Dar al-Kutub al-Lubnani, Beirut, in 590 pages.
- In 1410/1989, Al-Shirka al-'Alamiyya li l-Kitab, edited by Faraj Allah Husayni
- In 1408/1987, Dar al-Hijra, edited by 'Ayn Allah Hasani Urmawi, introduction about character of al-'Allama al-Hilli by Rida Sadr, in 608 pages.
The book has been translated to Farsi by 'Ali Rida Kuhansal.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from نهج الحق و کشف الصدق in Farsi Wikishia.