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Fatahiyya

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'''Faṭaḥiyya''' (Arabic: {{ia|فَطَحیّهالفَطَحیّه}}) or '''Afṭaḥiyya''' (Arabic: {{ia|أفطَحیهالأفطَحیه}}) were believers in the [[imamate]] of [['Abd Allah al-Aftah|'Abd Allah]], son of [[Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a)]], known as '''al-Afṭaḥ''' (Arabic: {{ia|اَفطَحالاَفطَح}}). After the [[martyrdom]] of the sixth Imam of [[Shi'a]] (a), his elder son, 'Abd Allah claimed his succession. Mentioning this quote from his father that "imamate of every Imam (a) reaches his elder son"; 'Abd Allah gathered some people around himself.
His claim did not last long and he died seventy days after the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a); and since he did not have any son or successor, his followers were left without leader and most of them turned to [[Imam al-Kazim (a)]] and the mentioned belief ended very soon. Some great figures of [[Imamiyya]] such as Bani [[Banu Faddal ]] turned to 'Abd Allah first, but many of them returned either from halfway or after he died.
== Cause of Naming ==
The cause of naming this group as Fatahiyya has been mentioned to be one of the following:
* 'Abd Allah's title as al-Aftah due to having a large head (aftah al-ra's) or large feet (aftah al-rijlayn).* Some others consider the leadership of another person called 'Abd Allah b. Faṭīḥ from [[Kufa]] for this movement as the reason for calling this sect Fatahiyya.<ref>Ṭūsī, ''Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl'', vol. 2, p. 524.</ref>
* Some others consider the leadership of another person called 'Abd Allah b. Fatih from [[Kufa]] for this movement as the reason for calling this sect Fatahiyya.<ref>Ṭūsī, ''Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl'', vol. 2, p. 524.</ref> == Destiny of 'Abd Allah al-Aftah ==
{{main|'Abd Allah al-Aftah}}
'Abd Allah, was the eldest son of [[Imam al-Sadiq (a)]] after [[Isma'il b. al-Imam al-Sadiq (a)|Isma'il]]. His mother was Fatima bt. al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Ali.<ref>Shahristānī, ''al-Milal wa l-niḥal'', vol. 1, p. 148.</ref>
According to some historical sources, he was inclined toward [[Murji'a]]{{enote|A theological sect the followers of which believed that worshipping together with disbelief has no benefit, and that, sinning does not decrease anything from faith. This sect considered intention and belief important and regarded speech and actions unimportant.}} and [[Hashwiyya]]{{enote|Followers of this sect are the extremists among Sunnis who did not care about rational thoughts and considered them unlawful innovations.}} thoughts so much that Imam al-Sadiq (a) called him "Murji'a Kabir " and therefore, he was rejected by his father.<ref>Mufīd, ''al-Fuṣūl al-mukhtāra'', p. 312.</ref>
After the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a), 'Abd Allah introduced himself as the successor of his father and took his place. He performed Imam's (a) [[ghusl]], [[Shrouding]] , and [[burial]] , and wore his ring.<ref>Shahristānī, ''al-Milal wa l-niḥal'', vol. 1, p. 148.</ref> He referred to this quote from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that "every imam's imamate will be transferred to his elder son" and gathered people around himself.
'Abd Allah died 70 seventy days after the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and left no children.<ref>Shahristānī, ''al-Milal wa l-niḥal'', vol. 1, p. 148.</ref> Therefore, the belief in the [[imamate ]] of 'Abd Allah Aftah ended and most of his followers turned to believe in the imamate of Imam al-Kazim (a).<ref>Ṭūsī, ''Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl'', vol. 2, p. 525.</ref>
== Fatahiyya Famous Figures ==
At the beginning of the claim of 'Abd Allah, many great [[List of Companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a)|companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a)]] accepted his claim and considered him the true successor of Imam (a), the most famous of whom were:
 
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*[['Abd Allah b. Bukayr]]<ref>Ṭūsī, ''al-Fihrist'', p. 173.</ref>
*[['Ammar b. Musa al-Sabati]]<ref>Ṭūsī, ''al-Fihrist'', p. 189.</ref>
*[[Ishaq b. 'Ammar al-Sabati]]<ref>Ṭūsī, ''al-Fihrist'', p. 54.</ref>
*[[Al-Hasan b. 'Ali b. Faddal]]<ref>Najāshī, ''Rijāl'', p. 35.</ref>
*[[Ali b. Asbat]]<ref>Ṭūsī, ''Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl'', vol. 2, p. 853.</ref>
*[[Yunus b. Ya'qub]]<ref>Ṭūsī, ''Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl'', vol. 2, p. 682.</ref>
*[[Ahmad b. al-Hasan b. Ali b. Fadal]]<ref>Ṭūsī, ''al-Fihrist'', p. 67.</ref>
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Based on historical evidences, many of these people returned from their belief in 'Abd Allah Aftah and there are no evidence whether others returned from that belief or not; however, it can be understood from [[rijal]] sources that all the mentioned people, despite their beliefs, were among reliable transmitters of hadiths who were trustworthy before Imams (a) and the [[Shi'a]] scholars. For example, [[Imam al-'Askari (a)]] was asked about the validity of [[hadith]]s transmitted by Bani Faddal who was a follower of Fatahiyya, and he (a) answered,
:Based on historical evidence, many of these people returned from their belief in 'Abd Allah al-Aftah and there is no evidence whether others returned from that belief or not; however, it can be understood from [[rijal]] sources that all the mentioned people, despite their beliefs, were among reliable transmitters of hadiths who were trustworthy before Imams (a) and the [[Shi'a]] scholars. For example, [[Imam al-'Askari (a)]] was asked about the validity of [[hadith]]s transmitted by [[Banu Faddal]] who were followers of Fatahiyya, and he (a) answered, "Act according to their hadiths, but leave their beliefs."<ref>Ṭūsī, ''al-Ghayba'', p. 390.</ref>
==See Also==
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*[[Nawusiyya]]
*[[Muhammad al-Dibaj]]
*[[Isma'iliyya]]
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== Notes ==
*Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. ''Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl''. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt li-Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth, [n.d].
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