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Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr

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| Lineage =
| Well known relatives =
| Birth = [[Ramadan 29]], 1272/ [[June 3]], 1856
| Place of Birth =[[Kadhimiya]]
| Place of Residence =
| Place of study =[[Najaf]], [[Samara]]
| Death =[[Rabi' I 11]], 1354 /[[June 13]], 1935
| Burial place = Kadhimiyya shrine
| Professors =[[Husayn Quli Hamadani]], [[Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Shirazi]]
| Official website =
}}
'''Al-Sayyid Hasan SadrḤasan al-Ṣadr''' (Arabic: {{ia|السيد حسن الصدر}}, b. 1272/1856 – 1354/1935) was a scholar in [[jurisprudence]], [[principles of jurisprudence]] and [[hadith]] and was among [[Shi'a authorities]] known as '''Muhaddith al-Kazimayni'''. He received [[permission for transmitting hadith]]s from many religious scholars. His most famous work is ''[[Ta'sis al-Shi'a li 'ulum al-Islam]]'' on the role of Shi'a in foundation of Islamic sciences.
== Life and Education ==
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr was born on [[Ramadan 29]], 1272/[[June 3]], 1856 in [[Kadhimiya]]. His father Al-Sayyid Hadi al-Sadr was among the scholars of his time. Al-Sayyid Hasan began studying religious sciences by the advice of his father and learned Arabic morphology, grammar, discourse, semantics and literary devices by the age of 15 fifteen and began participating in the classes of jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence since the age of eighteen.
== Residing in Najaf ==
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr emigrated to [[Najaf]] by the order of his father. He learned [[philosophy]], [[theology]], jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence and other Islamic sciences in the [[seminary of Najaf]] in seventeen years and reached the level of [[ijtihad]] in jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence.
== Emigration to Samara ==
Ayatullah [[Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Shirazi]] emigrated to [[Samara]] in 1291/1874 and many of his students emigrated there as well. Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr emigrated to Samara in 1297/1880 and stayed there for seventeen years. He taught there beside benefitting from the classes of Ayatollah Shirazi. His eloquent speech attracted everyone. Ayatullah Shirazi especially favored him as well. Two years after the demise of Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Shirazi (1314/1896), Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr returned to his hometown, Kadhimiya, together with his cousin, [[Al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr]].
== Scientific Life ==
=== Teachers and Some Students ===
Some teachers of Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr were:
{{cb|3}}
*Baqir b. Muhammad Hasan Al Yasin
=== Permission for Transmitting Hadiths ===
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr was among [[hadith scholars scholar]]s and was therefore famous as Muhaddith Kazimayni. Those from whom he transmitted hadiths were two groups:
'''First group:''' those from whom he transmitted hadiths without having written permissions from including: Mirza Hasan Shirazi (d. 1312/1894), [[Mirza Habib Allah Rashti]] (d. 1312/1894), Muhammad Hasan b. Hashim Kazimi (d. 1308/1890), Muhammad Irawani (d. 1306/1888), Muhammad Hasan Al Yasin and Sayyid Hadi Sadr (d. 1316/1898).
'''Second group:''' those scholars who gave him written [[permissions for transmitting hadith]]s including: Shaykh Mulla Ali b. Khalil Razi (d. 1297/1880), Sayyid Mahdi Qazwini Hilli, Mirza [[Muhammad Hashim b. Zayn al-'Abidin Isfahani]] (d. 1318/1900).
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr was a great [[muhaddith]]. He gave many scholars, written permissions for transmitting hadiths including:
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*[[Muhammad Husayn Gharawi Isfahani]] (d.1361/1942)
=== Religious Authority ===
Mirza Muhammad Hasan Shirazi passed away in 1312/1894. Many of Shirazi's followers asked Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr to publish his manual of practical laws. Sadr rejected their requests and referred them to Ayatollah Al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr. Sayyid Isma'il passed away in 1338/1919. Once again people referred to Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr and repeated their requests, he published his [[manual of practical laws]] titled as ''Ru'us al-masa'il al-muhimma'' and undertook this responsibility at the age of sixty six.
== Scientific Works and Cultural Activities ==
{{Main|List of Works by Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr}}
[[File:تاسیس الشیعه.jpg|thumbnail|right|220px|The book Ta'sis al-Shi'a li 'ulum al-Islam]]
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr wrote eighty two volumes of books, the most famous one of which is ''Ta'sis al-Shi'a''. In this book, he tried to explain how Shi'a has been pioneer in different Islamic sciences comparing to other Islamic sects based on documents.
In ''Tarikh adab al-lughat al-'Arabiyya'' published in four volumes, Jurji Zaydan, the famous historiographer (d. 1914) wrote, "Shi'a was a small sect who had no significant works and now there is no Shi'a in the world."
When Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr heard about this, promised to work together with Shaykh [[Aqa Buzurg Tehrani]] and Ayatullah [[Muhammad Husayn Kashif al-Ghita']] to introduce Shi'a. Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr researched about Shi'a scientific activities and their roles in foundation and perfection of Islamic sciences and compiled his famous work titled ''[[Ta'sis al-Shi'a li 'ulum al-Islam]]'' which was published in 1370/1950 in 445 pages.
By writing ''[[al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a]]'' in twenty nine volumes, Shaykh Aqa Buzurg Tehrani introduced Shi'a writings and works in different sciences.
[[Wahhabi]] cultural activities were increasing everyday. To remove this trouble, Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr wrote a book titled as ''Risalat al-sharifa fi radd 'ala fatawa al-Wahhabiyyin''.
He loved to buy and collect books so much. His love for that was so much he put aside some necessary expenses in his life in order to be able to buy even one book. He collected old books and manuscripts and if the author of a book was unknown, he searched so much to find its author. His library now holds more than thousand volumes of precious books.
[['Allama Sharaf al-Din]] says, "I heard from Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr that he was (usually) awake to study all nights in his youth; and during the day, he did not take a nap before or after noon. I also witnessed that when he was old, he was busy in his library researching and writing, holding a pen in his right hand and a paper in his left hand. I even dare to say his honorable slept [only] one fourth of his life and was awake the rest of his life, contrary to ordinary people who are awake one fourth of their lives."
== Demise ==
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr passed away on Thursday, [[Rabi' I 11]], 1354/[[June 13]], 1935 and was buried in one of the rooms of the courtyard of Kadhimiyya shrine beside his father's grave. Following his demise, [[Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Isfahani]] announced public mourning for three days.
==References==
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