Sūra Nūḥ (Arabic: سورة نوح) is seventy first sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' twenty nine. Naming this sura is because it contains the story of Prophet Noah (a). This sura illustrates the constant fight between advocates of the truth and falsehood and the plans the advocates of the truth should follow in their path. This sura is among Mufassalat suras which are relatively short suras of the Qur'an.
Two verses of "Ta'khir Ajal" (delay of death) and asking forgiveness for oneself and believers are among famous verses of this sura. About the merits of recitation of this sura, it is transmitted that whoever recites Sura Nuh, will be among believers for whom Prophet Noah (a) prayed.
Naming this sura as "Nuh" is considered because of the story of Prophet Noah (a) from the beginning of this sura until its end.
- Order and Place of Revelation
- Number of Verses and Other Features
Sura Nuh has twenty eight verses, 227 words and 965 letters. Regarding volume, it is among Mufassalat suras (relatively short suras of the Qur'an). This sura is also mentioned among Mumtahinat suras which are said to be related with Sura al-Mumtahana (Qur'an 60) regarding messages.
- Main article: Prophet Noah (a)
Story of Noah (a) and destiny of his people have been mentioned in different suras of the Qur'an, but, what is mentioned in Sura Nuh is a special part of his life which is not mentioned this way elsewhere. In this sura, the Prophet Noah's (a) constant invitation towards monotheism, his method and the way he encountered his stubborn people who did not accept to believe are discussed.
In this sura, other issues related with the story of Prophet Noah (a) are also mentioned.
- Quotation of counsels of Prophet Noah (a)
- Emphasis on God-wariness and obedience of God and His Prophet (s)
- Counting the blessings of God and the signs of His Oneness
- Mentioning theological, jurisprudential, moral and social principles
Some exegetical points are mentioned under some verses of this sura.
Three Principles in Prophet Noah's (a) Invitation
Verse three of Sura Nuh, "Worship Allah and be wary of Him, and obey me" is considered to contain three principles in Prophet Noah's (a) invitation. Allama Tabataba'i considered the first part of the verse "Worship Allah" suggesting that people of Noah knew about God, but instead of worshipping Him, they worshipped idols as intercessors before God; therefore, he introduces the first principle of Noah's invitation, inviting to monotheism.
The second principle which is adopted from the phrase "and be wary of Him" is to avoid greater and lesser sins, referring to polytheism and sins less than that and on the other hand performing righteous deeds which should not be abandoned. The third principle is adopted from the third part of the verse "and obey me" which is obeying Noah, approving his prophethood and acquiring teachings of religion from him.
Achieving Mercy and Blessings
Verses ten to twelve of Sura Nuh  have introduced repentance among the ways of achieving God's mercy and blessings. Some hadiths are transmitted about this verse which have considered attracting God's mercy and blessings depending on asking His forgiveness.
Two verses of four and twenty eight of Sura Nuh about delay of death and asking forgiveness for oneself and believers are among famous verses of this sura.
Verse of Delaying Death
|“||"that He may forgive you some of your sins and respite you until a specified time. Indeed when Allah’s [appointed] time comes, it cannot be deferred, if you know.’"||”|
|— Quran 71:4|
Delay in death is among theological discussions made under the fourth verse of Sura Nuh. In this verse, polytheists are addressed that if they believe in the three principles of the invitation of Prophet Noah (a), their sins will be forgiven and their deaths will be delayed.
According to the message of the verse, many Shi'a exegetes categorized "ajal" to "ajal musamma" (a specified time) and "ajal niha'i" (final time) or in other words, near and "far ajal" (times), or "conditional" and "absolute" times; according to which, "ajal musamma" (a specified time) can be postponed using some methods including repentance and "ajal niha'i" (ultimate time) which is also called "ajal Allah" (God's time) is definite and cannot be altered. Allama Tabataba'i considered delay of the death until a specified time in this verse, a result of worshipping God, God-wariness and obeying the Messenger (s) and that disbelievers are promised that if they have faith, God-wariness and obedience, their near time of death will be delayed until a specified later time.
Delay of the death is also confirmed by hadiths. It is mentioned in a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a), "those who die due to sins are more than those who die due to divine death, and those who achieve long lives are more than those who achieve long lives due to natural causes."
Verse of Asking for Forgiveness
|“||"My Lord! Forgive me and my parents, and whoever enters my house in faith, and the faithful men and women, and do not increase the wrongdoers in anything but ruin.’"||”|
|— Quran 71:28|
Verse twenty eight of Sura Nuh is about asking for forgiveness for oneself, one's parents and believers and is among famous Qur'anic supplications which is also recited in qunut.
Asking for forgiveness by Prophet Noah (a) is considered due to the possibility of abandoning the prior which he possibly committed, similar to the friends of God who consider themselves blameworthy so that they never find conceit after all the efforts they make in the way of God. Allama Tabataba'i considered the phrase "and whoever enters my house" referring to the relatives of a believer, and the phrase "and the faithful men and women" referring to all believer men and women until the Day of Judgement. In his view, the word "tabar" refers to a destruction which causes punishment in the hereafter and destruction in this world.
Merits and Benefits
|For the full text, see text:Sura Nuh.|
- Khurramshāhī, "Sūra-yi Nūh," p. 1258.
- Ṣafawī, "Sūra-yi Nūh", p. 830.
- This sura has 28 verses according to Kufa reciters, 29 verses according to reciters of Basra and Sham and 30 verses according to some others reciters, but the first view is more famous.
- Ṣafawī, "Sūra-yi Nūh", p. 830.
- Rāmyār, Tārīkh-i Qur'ān, p. 360 and 596.
- Farhangnāma-yi ulūm-i Qur'ān, vol. 1, p. 2612.
- Mumtahinat are 16 suras of the Qur'an and it is said that Suyuti called them Mumtahinat.
- In suras al-Shu'ara, al-Mu'minun, al-A'raf, al-Anbiya' and especially in 25 verses of Sura Hud, the story of Noah (a) is mentioned.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 53.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 53.
- Khurramshāhī, "Sūra-yi Nūh," p. 1258-1259.
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- Qur'an 71: 3
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 20, p. 26-27. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 58.
- telling [them]: ‘‘Plead to your Lord for forgiveness. Indeed, He is all-forgiving. He will send for you abundant rains from the sky, and aid you with wealth and sons, and provide you with gardens and provide you with streams.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 20, p. 30.
- Ḥuwayzī, Tafsīr nūr al-thaqalayn, vol. 5, p. 423.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 542.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 59.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 542; Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 20, p. 28; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 59; Shāh 'Abdul-Azīmī, Tafsīr ithnā asharī, vol. 13, p. 325; Ṭūsī, Tibyān fī tafsīr al-Qur'ān, vol. 10, p. 133; Kāshāni, Manhaj al-sādiqīn fī ilzām al-mukhalifīn, vol. 10, p. 17; Burūjirdī, Tafsīr-i jāmi', vol. 7, p. 249.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 20, p. 28.
- Ṭabarī Amulī, Dalā'il al-imāma, p. 227; Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 305.
- Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 5, p. 140.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 90.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 20, p. 37.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 540.
- Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 120.
- Nūrī, Mustadrak al-wasā'il, vol. 8, p. 226.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 5, p. 316.
- Baḥrānī, Tafsīr al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 495.
- Qurʾān Karīm. Translated by Muḥammad Mahdī Fūlādwand. Tehran: Dār al-Qurʾān al-Karīm, 1418 AH-1376 Sh.
- Baḥrānī, Hāshim b. Sulaymān al-. Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Bunyād-i Biʿthat, 1416 AH.
- Burūjirdī, Muḥammad Ibrāhīm. Tafsīr-i Jāmi'. Tehran: Kitābkhāna-yi Ṣadr, 1366 Sh.
- Ḥuwayzī, ʿAbd ʿAlī b. al-Jumʿa al-. Tafsīr Nūr al-thaqalayn. Qom: Ismā'ilīyān, 1415 AH.
- Khurramshāhī, Qawām al-Dīn. "Sūra-yi Ḥajj" in Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
- Rāmyār, Maḥmūd. Tārīkh-i Qur'ān. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Ilmī wa Farhangī, 1361 Sh.
- Shāh Abdul al-ʿAẓīmī, Ḥusayn. Tafsīr ithnā asharī. Tehran: Mīqāt, 1363 Sh.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl. Edited by Ṣādiq Ḥasanzāda. Tehran: Armaghān-i Ṭūbā, 1382 Sh.
- Ṣafawī, Salmān. "Sūra-yi Nūḥ" in Dānishnāmah-yi mu'āṣir-i Qurʾān-i karīm. Qom: Intishārāt-i Salmān-i Azāda, 1396 Sh.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, Mūḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1390 Sh.
- Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Naṣir Khusraw, 1372 Sh.
- Ṭabarī Āmulī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Dalāʾil al-imāma. Qom: Biʿthat, 1413 AH.
- Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Amālī. Qom: Dār al-Thiqāfa, 1414 AH.
- Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Tibyān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Aḥmad Qaṣīr al-ʿĀmilī. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, [n.d].
- Farhangnāma-yi ʿulūm-i Qurʾān''. Qom: Daftar-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, [n.d].
- Kāshānī, Mullā Fatḥ Allāh. Manhaj al-ṣādiqīn fī ilzām al-mukhālifīn. Tehran: Kitābfurūshī-yi Islāmīyya, [n.d].
- Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Ed. ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407AH.
- Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār al-jāmiʿa li-durar akhbār al-aʾimmat al-aṭhār. Third edition. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1403 AH
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūnah. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1371 Sh.
- Nūrī, Mīrzā Ḥusayn al-. Mustadrak al-wasāʾil. [n.p]: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1408 AH.