|al-Baqara← →Al Imran|
Sūra al-Baqara (Arabic: سورة البقرة) is the largest sura of the Qur'an. It is the second sura, and it is a Madani sura located in first, second, and third juz's. It is called "al-Baqara" (cow) because it involves a reference to the story of the cow of the Children of Israel.
The main theme of Sura al-Baqara is said to be the guidance of human beings; that people should come to believe what God has revealed to His messengers, without differentiating among the messengers. Sura al-Baqara is believed to have a comprehensive content because it touches principles of beliefs and rulings of worships, as well as social, political, and economic matters. Stories and historical narrations in Sura al-Baqara include those of the Children of Israel, Abraham (a), the revival of the dead, and Saul and Goliath.
Sura al-Baqara includes al-Kursi Verse, Aman al-Rasul Verse, al-Qibla Verse, and the longest verse of the Qur'an (verse 282). According to a hadith from the Prophet (s), Sura al-Baqara is the most virtuous sura of the Qur'an, and al-Kursi Verse is the most virtuous verse in the Qur'an.
The sura is called "al-Baqara" (female cow) because it narrates the story of the cow of the Children of Israel (verses 67-73) in which their excuse-makings are recounted. The sura is also variously called "Qustat al-Qur'an," "Sanam al-Qur'an," "Sayyid al-Qur'an," and "Zahra'." Sura al-Baqara and Sura Al 'Imran are jointly called "Zahrawan."
- Place and Order of Revelation
Sura al-Baqara is a Madani sura of the Qur'an. In the order of revelation, it is the 86th sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the present order of compilation, it is the second sura, located in first, second, and third juz's of the Qur'an. It is the first sura revealed to the Prophet (s) in Medina after Sura al-Mutaffifin and before Sura Al 'Imran.
- Number of Verses and Other Features
Sura al-Baqara has 286 verses and 6156 words. It is the largest sura of the Qur'an, occupying about two and a half juz's thereof. It is the first of the seven Tiwal (long) suras, and the first of the 29 suras opening with disjoined letters. The longest word, "fa-sayakfikahumullah" (and Allah will be sufficient for you against them), and the longest verse (verse 282), occur in this sura.
'Allama Tabataba'i takes the main theme of the sura to be that people should believe what God revealed to His messengers, without differentiating among the messengers. Other themes of the sura, according to him, include reprehension of disbelievers and hypocrites as well as the People of the Book because of their heresies.
Sura al-Baqara is said to be comprehensive with respect to contents, since it tackles with principles of beliefs, and rulings of worships, as well as social, political, and economic matters.
The contents of Sura al-Baqara are summarized in Tafsir-i nimuna as follows:
- Monotheism and knowledge of God,
- The miracle of the Qur'an and its importance,
- Rulings of prayer,
- Rulings of fasting,
- Jihad in the way of God,
- Rulings of business and debts,
- Rulings of usury,
- Donation in the way of God,
- Haram meat,
- Rulings of Will.
Historical Stories and Narrations
- The Story of the Creation of Adam (a): The story appears in Sura al-Baqara, as well as Suras al-A'raf, al-Hijr, al-Isra', and Taha.
- The story of the Forbidden Tree, Verses 35 -37
- Stories of the Children of Israel:
- Rescue from the Pharaoh
- The Children of Israel worshiping calf
- The Children of Israel asking to see God
- Altering the words
- The miracle of Twelve Springs
- Request for numerous foods, and the impoverishment of the Children of Israel
- The covenant of the Children of Israel
- Transgression concerning the Sabbath
- The story of the Cow of the Children of Israel (this story appears only in Sura al-Baqara)
- The story of Harut and Marut in the verse 102: it concerns two angels called "Harut" and "Marut" who were commissioned by God to neutralize the spells of magicians.
- The test of Abraham (a), and the reconstruction of the Ka'ba
- The redirection of the qibla during the life of the Prophet (s)
- The story of Saul and Goliath
- Abraham's argument concerning death
- Abraham and the observation of dead birds coming back to life
- The story of Ezra
Occasions of Revelations of Certain Verses
There are occasions of revelations for about 80 verses of Sura al-Baqara. Below are references to some of these:
Muslims being Mocked by Hypocrites
According to Ibn 'Abbas, the verse 14 of Sura al-Baqara "When they meet the faithful, they say, ‘We believe,’ but when they are alone with their devils, they say, ‘We are with you; we were only deriding [them].’" is concerned with 'Abd Allah b. Ubayy and his hypocrite friends who praised some of the Prophet's companions in their face, and then mocked and showed disgust to them in their own circle.
Followers of Other Religions Can Go to the Heaven
According to Mujahid, when Salman recounted the story of his friends back home and how they worshiped God, the Prophet (s) said that they will then go to the Hell. Salman was saddened by this, until the verse 62 of Sura al-Baqara was revealed, according to which if followers of other religions believe in God and resurrection and do righteous actions, then they will be rewarded by God. Salman said: "this verse lifted a bulk of sadness from my breast."
The Story of the Cow of the Children of Israel
Verses 67 to 74 of Sura al-Baqara recount the well-known story of the cow of the Children of Israel. It points to excuses made by them and their hardheartedness. The story is narrated in Tafsir-i nimuna as follows: a person from the Children of Israel was killed, and then a dispute emerged within tribes as to who the murderer was. To settle the dispute, they went to Moses (a), and with the help of God, he hit the corpse with part of the body of a special cow, as a consequence of which the dead person miraculously came back to life, and introduced his murderer. According to Tafsir-i nimuna, the story teaches God's endless power, resurrection, and the necessity of avoiding strictness.
Permission of Some Actions on Nights of Ramadan
'Ali b. Ibrahim al-Qummi transmitted a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) according to which early after Islam, sexual intercourse was forbidden throughout the whole Ramadan month, and if one fell asleep before the time of breaking the fast, then he was not allowed to eat anything until the next time of breaking the fast. According to 'Ali b. Ibrahim, during the Battle of Ahzab, a companion of the Prophet (s) who was a senile fell asleep at the time of breaking the fast, and the next day he fell unconscious while digging the trench. Moreover, some Muslims had sexual intercourses with their wives on nights of the Ramadan month. Thus, the verse 187 of Sura al-Baqara was revealed, abrogating the earlier ruling.
Forbiddance of Marriage with Polytheists
The verse 221 of Sura al-Baqara was revealed about a man called Marthad b. Marthad al-Ghanawi, who was courageous and strong. At the command of the Prophet (s), he went to Mecca to save some Muslims who were still there. When Marthad was in Mecca, a woman called 'Inaq expressed her love for him and asked him to marry her. However, since Marthad was committed to Islamic laws, he conditioned the marriage upon the Prophet's permission. When he met the Prophet (s) in Medina and told him about the story, the verse 221 was revealed, in which marriage with polytheists was banned.
How the Dead Are Revived
There are different hadiths about the occasion of the revelation of the verse 260 of Sura al-Baqara. According to one hadith, the Prophet Abraham (a) saw the corpse of a whale half of which was in the sea and the other half on the land, and it was eaten by marine and terrestrial animals. Iblis told Abraham (a) how God could reassemble all these parts from the stomachs of all these creatures. Abraham (a) asked God to show him how He would bring life back into the dead. A Heavenly voice said, "Have you not believed?" Abraham replied: "Yes, but only that my heart may be satisfied and be freed from the Satan's temptations."
The Verse of Human Succession (30)
- Main article: The Verse of Human Succession
وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
"When your Lord said to the angels, ‘Indeed I am going to set a viceroy on the earth,’ they said, ‘Will You set in it someone who will cause corruption in it and shed blood, while we celebrate Your praise and proclaim Your sanctity?’ He said, ‘Indeed I know what you do not know.’"
|— Qur'an 2:30|
The verse 30 of Sura al-Baqara is about the human khilafa or succession of God on the Earth, and a conversation between God and angels concerning the succession. The verse is the first of ten verses concerning the human place in the system of creation, his features, dispositions, and capabilities, the nature and effects of his succession of God, and his fall to the Earth.
According to the verse 30 of Sura al-Baqara, when God informs angels that He is about to appoint a successor on the Earth, the angels immediately knew that this would lead to corruptions and blood-shedding on the face of the Earth. Many exegetes infer from their response that they were aware of previous creatures on the Earth who had caused corruptions thereon. In Majma' al-bayan, Ibn 'Abbas and Ibn Mas'ud are quoted as saying that the angels knew that Adam (a) himself was infallible, but they asked the question because God had told them that children of Adam (a) would cause corruptions on the Earth.
According to 'Allama Tabataba'i, the angels' response was grounded in their knowledge of the earthly nature of human beings, which is a combination of anger and lust.
The Verse of Magic (102)
- Main article: Verse of Magic
وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ...
And they followed what the devils pursued during Solomon’s reign —and Solomon was not faithless but it was the devils who were faithless—teaching the people magic and what was sent down to the two angels at Babylon, Harut and Marut,...
|— Qur'an 2:102|
The Abrogation Verse (106)
- Main article: Abrogation Verse
مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا ۗ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
"For any verse that We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring another which is better than it, or similar to it. Do you not know that Allah has power over all things?"
|— Qur'an 2:106|
The majority of exegetes interpret the verse as a response to Jews who insulted Muslims because Muhammad (s) commanded them to do something and the next day he changed the command, while if his words were revelations from God, there would be no such conflicts in his words. The verse is taken as evidence for God's sovereignty and for His power to determine the interests of His servants. Thus, believers should not listen to the words of partial people and doubt the abrogation of rulings.
The Verse of the Originator (117)
- Main article: Verse of the Originator
بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ
"the Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decides on a matter, He just says to it, ‘Be!’ and it is."
|— Qur'an 2:117|
'Allama Tabataba'i appeals to a hadith from Imam al-Baqir (a) to interpret God's being the originator (badi') as the creation of everything with His knowledge and without a prior pattern. Thus, there is always a difference between every two creatures in the world, and so every creature has an "original" (badi') existence; that is, it exists without there being anything else similar to it. Therefore, God is the originator of the skies and the Earth.
The Verse of the Abraham’s Test (124)
- Main article: Verse of the Abraham's Test
وَإِذِ ابْتَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ
"When his Lord tested Abraham with certain words and he fulfilled them, He said, ‘I am making you the Imam of mankind.’ Said he, ‘And from among my descendants?’ He said, ‘My pledge does not extend to the unjust.’"
|— Qur'an 2:124|
The verse 124 of Sura al-Baqara is known as the Verse of the Abraham's Test. Debates about this verse go back to the period of Imams of the Shiites in which their companions sought to establish their infallibility via this verse. Shiite scholars believe that the verse implies the infallibility of Imams (a), and the word, "Imam," in the verse refers to a position other than prophethood or messengership of God. In contrast, Sunni scholars take "Imam" to refer to prophets or messengers of God.
===Al-Istirja' Verse=== (156)
- Main article: Al-Istirja' Verse
الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَالُوا إِنَّا لِلَّـهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ
"—those who, when an affliction visits them, say, ‘Indeed we belong to Allah and to Him do we indeed return.’"
|— Qur'an 2:156|
The last part of the verse 156 of Sura al-Baqara pointing to the return of human beings to God is known as al-Istirja' Verse or the Verse of Return. According to the verse, the patient people are those “who, when disaster strikes them, say, "Indeed we belong to Allah, and indeed to Him we will return"." According to this verse as well as some hadiths, Muslims recite this verse when a disaster or loss strikes them. In Majma' al-bayan, the Prophet (s) is quoted as saying that a person who recites this verse in disasters will inhabit the Heaven.
The Verse of Responding to Supplications (186)
- Main article: Fulfillment of Supplications
وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ ۖ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ ۖ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ
"When My servants ask you about Me, [tell them that] I am indeed nearmost. I answer the supplicant’s call when he calls Me. So let them respond to Me, and let them have faith in Me, so that they may fare rightly."
|— Qur'an 2:186|
The verse is said to have features that highlight God's will to respond to invocations of supplications:
- The verb form is singular first-person.
- It talks about "My servants" rather than people.
- It talks to people directly.
- It emphasizes on God's closeness to His servants.
- It ties God's response to people's supplications.
The Verse of Selling (207)
- Main article: Al-Shira' Verse
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّـهِ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ
"And among the people is he who sells his soul seeking the pleasure of Allah, and Allah is most kind to [His] servants."
|— Qur'an 2:207|
The verse 207 of Sura al-Baqara is known as the Verse of Selling or al-Shira' Verse. The verse praises those who sell their lives for the sake of God. Muslim exegetes debated the occasion of the revelation of the verse. Shiite as well as some Sunni scholars believe that the verse was revealed about Imam 'Ali (a) and the story of Laylat al-Mabit.
Al-Kursi Verse (255)
- Main article: Al-Kursi Verse
اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ۚ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ۚ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ۚ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ۚ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ
"Allah—there is no god except Him—is the Living One, the All-sustainer. Neither drowsiness befalls Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that may intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not comprehend anything of His knowledge except what He wishes. His seat embraces the heavens and the earth and He is not wearied by their preservation, and He is the All-exalted, the All-supreme."
|— Qur'an 2:255|
Al-Kursi Verse is very well-known among, and honored and respected by, Muslims. It was already known as "Ayat al-Kursi" during the lifetime of the Prophet (s). The Prophet (s) is quoted as saying: "al-Kursi Verse is the greatest verse of the Qur'an."
There are many hadiths from Ahl al-Bayt (a) about the importance and interpretation of al-Kursi Verse. 'Allama Tabataba'i attributes the greatness of al-Kursi Verse to the fact that it contains precise information about pure monotheism and God's absolute sovereignty, believing that all God's great names, except the names of His essence, go back to His sovereignty.
According to a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a), "al-Kursi" is God's exclusive knowledge of which He has never informed any of His prophets and messengers and other authorities.
The Verse of No Compulsion in the Religion (256)
لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّـهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّـهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
"There is no compulsion in religion: rectitude has become distinct from error. So one who disavows fake deities and has faith in Allah has held fast to the firmest handle for which there is no breaking; and Allah is all-hearing, all-knowing."
|— Qur'an 2:256|
The verse 256 of Sura al-Baqara is taken to refer to non-compulsory acceptance of the religion. In particular, Islam cannot be forced upon disbelievers, polytheists, and others, because "the right course has become clear from the wrong." According to this verse, coerced words and actions have no this-worldly or afterlife value from the viewpoint of the sharia.
About the occasion of the revelation of the verse, it is said that a companion of the Prophet (s) asked him to make his two sons return to Islam after they had converted to Christianity. In response, the verse 256 of Sura al-Baqara was revealed according to which there is no compulsory belief. According to Makarim Shirazi in Tafsir-i nimuna, the verse shows that Islam never advanced through coercions or the force of swords or military power. In his view, since the preceding verse talks about fundamental religious beliefs, such as monotheism and divine attributes, and these beliefs can be proved via reason, this verse implies that there is no need for compulsion in the acceptance of the religion.
'Allama Tabataba'i speculates that the "compulsion" in the verse might refer to existential compulsion, that is, since believing is an act of heart, it is ontologically impossible to coerce someone to believe something.
Aman al-Rasul Verse (285)
- Main article: Aman al-Rasul Verse
آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّـهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ ۚ وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ...
"The Apostle and the faithful have faith in what has been sent down to him from his Lord. Each [of them] has faith in Allah, His angels, His scriptures and His apostles. [They declare,] ‘We make no distinction between any of His apostles.’ And they say, ‘We hear and obey. Our Lord, forgive us, and toward You is the return.’"
|— Qur'an 2:285|
The verses of Aman al-Rasul, known as the Verse of Aman al-Rasul consist of verses 285 and 286 of Sura al-Baqara. The themes of the two verses consist in the belief in God, endorsement of prophets, the belief in resurrection, observing God's right for worship, heartfelt faith and practical obedience by believers, God's forgiveness, people not being charged beyond their capacity, and Islam being easy to practice.
Other Well-Known Verses
Other well-known verses of Sura al-Baqara include the verse 23 concerning the Qur'an's challenge for opponents, the verse 112 concerning pure submission to God, the verse 115 concerning God's presence in east and west, the verse 155 concerning the trial and test of patient people, the verse 159 known as the Verse of Concealment, the verse 177 concerning the nature of goodness, the verse 201 concerning the dhikr of qunut, the verse 207 known as the Verse of Submission, the verse 213 concerning one nation, the verse 238 concerning the importance of observing the times of the prayer, and the verse 269 according to which God gives wisdom to whom He wills.
There are verses in Sura al-Baqara to which Muslims jurists have appealed to glean jurisprudential rulings. Verses involving a jurisprudential ruling or verses from which such rulings can be inferred are called "Ayat al-Ahkam" or Jurisprudential Verses. Some Jurisprudential Verses of Sura al-Baqara are pointed out in the following table:
|3 -5||who believe in the Unseen, maintain the prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them;||Worships||Faith as a condition of the correctness of worships|
|21||O mankind! Worship your Lord, who created you and those who were before you,||Worships||Obligation of worship for all human persons|
|22||So do not set up equals to Allah, while you know...||Worships||Prohibition of polytheism in worships|
|27||—those who break the covenant made with Allah after having pledged it solemnly,||Nadhr, Oath and Promise||Prohibition and consequences of violating one's promises]]|
|29||It is He who created for you all that is in the earth,||Foods and Drinks||The principle of permissibility of everything that does not cause a corruption|
|43||And maintain the prayer, and give the zakat, and bow along with those who bow [in prayer].||Prayer and Zakat||Obligation of performing one's prayer and paying one's zakat|
|114||Who is a greater wrongdoer than those who deny access to the mosques of Allah lest His Name be celebrated therein, and try to ruin them?...||Prayer||Prohibition of obstructing the performance of prayers in mosques|
|124||When his Lord tested Abraham with certain words and he fulfilled them, He said, ‘I am making you the Imam of mankind...||Prayer||Righteousness of the Imam of a congregational prayer, and...|
|125||And [remember] when We made the House a place of reward for mankind and a sanctuary, [declaring],...||Hajj||Legislation of hajj, the prayer of circumambulation, and...|
|140||And who is a greater wrongdoer than someone who conceals a testimony that is with him from Allah? And Allah is not oblivious of what you do...||Testimony||Prohibition of concealing one's testimony|
|144||We certainly see you turning your face about in the sky. We will surely turn you to a qiblah of your liking:...||Prayer||Qibla and its rulings|
|158||Indeed Safa and Marwah are among Allah’s sacraments...||Hajj||Sa'y al-Safa wa l-Marwa|
|168||O mankind! Eat of what is lawful and pure in the earth...||Foods and Drinks||The principle of the permissibility of everything that does not cause corruptions|
|170||What, even if their fathers neither exercised their reason nor were guided?!...||Taqlid||Impermissibility of following a non-mujtahid or a non-expert|
|172||O you who have faith! Eat of the good things We have provided you,...||Foods and Drinks||The principle of the permissibility of everything that does not cause corruptions|
|170||He has forbidden you only carrion, blood, the flesh of the swine, ...||hunting and slaughtering||Haram foods such as dead animals, blood, pork, non-slaughtered animals, and...|
|177||and those who fulfill their covenants, when they pledge themselves,||Nadhr, Oath and Promise||Obligation of keeping one's promise|
|178-179||Retribution is prescribed for you regarding the slain: freeman for freeman, slave for slave, and female for female...||Hudud and Diyat||Legislation of qisas, and its types|
|180||Prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you and he leaves behind any property, is that he make a bequest for his parents...||Will||Obligation of writing one’s will for one’s close relatives|
|182||But should someone, fearing deviance or sin on the testator’s behalf, set things right between them,...||Will||The goodness of peace between two hostile parties|
|183- 185||O you who have faith! Prescribed for you is fasting as it was prescribed for those who were before you,...||Fasting||Legislation of fasting for Muslims and some of its rulings|
|187||You are permitted on the night of the fast to go into your wives: ...||Fasting||Rulings of fasting|
|188||Do not eat up your wealth among yourselves wrongfully,...||Tradings||Prohibition of consuming another person's wealth unjustly|
|190- 191||Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress...||Jihad||Legislation of jihad and observing justice in jihad|
|194||So should anyone aggress against you, assail him in the manner he assailed you,...||Hudud and Diyat||Observing equality in qisas|
|196||Complete the hajj and the ‘umrah for Allah’s sake,...||Hajj||Some actions of Hajj and 'Umra|
|198||Then when you stream out of ‘Arafat remember Allah at the Holy Mash‘ar,...||Hajj||Sojourn in the land of Mash'ar al-Haram|
|203||Remember Allah in the appointed days...||Hajj||Actions of Tashriq days|
|217||They ask you concerning warfare in the holy month. Say, ‘It is an outrageous thing to fight in it,...||Jihad||Rulings of haram months|
|221||Do not marry idolatresses until they embrace faith...||Marriage||Prohibition of marriage with polytheists|
|222||They ask you concerning [intercourse during] menses. Say, ‘It is hurtful.’ So keep away from wives during the menses,...||Tahara and Najasa||Rulings of menopause|
|223||Your women are a tillage for you, so come to your tillage whenever you like,...||Marriage||Sexual relationships|
|224-225||Do not make Allah an obstacle, through your oaths,...||Nadhr, Oath and Promise||Prohibition of a false oath|
|226-227||For those who forswear their wives shall be a waiting [period]of four months...||Divorce||Ila' and its rulings|
|228||Divorced women shall wait by themselves for three periods of purity [after menses],...||Divorce||'Idda for divorce|
|229- 232||[Revocable] divorce may be only twice; then [let there be] either an honourable retention, or a kindly release...||Divorce||Rulings of divorce|
|233||Mothers shall suckle their children for two full years...||Marriage||Rulings of suckling, obligation of breastfeeding the baby|
|234||As for those of you who die leaving wives, they shall wait by themselves four months and ten days,...||Marriage||'Idda for death|
|235||There is no sin upon you in what you may hint in proposing to [recently widowed] women,...||Marriage||Marriage proposal|
|236-237||There is no sin upon you if you divorce women while you have not yet touched them or settled a dowry for them...||Divorce||Rulings of divorce without having had a sexual intercourse|
|238||Be watchful of your prayers, and [especially] the middle prayer, and stand in obedience to Allah||Prayer||Observing the times of prayers|
|240||Those of you who die leaving wives shall bequeath for their wives...||Will||Will for one's wife|
|245||Who is it that will lend Allah a good loan that He may multiply it for him severalfold?...||lending money||Importance and goodness of lending money|
|264||O you who have faith! Do not render your charities void by reproaches and affronts,...||lending money||Invalidation of divine rewards for lending|
|270||Allah indeed knows whatever charity you may give, or vows that you may vow||Nadhr, Oath and Promise||Obligation of complying with one's nadhr|
|275- 276||Those who exact usury will not stand but like one deranged by the Devil’s touch...||Bay'||Prohibition of Usury|
|278- 280||O you who have faith! Be wary of Allah and abandon [all claims to] what remains of usury, should you be faithful.||Bay'||Rulings of usury|
|282- 283||O you who have faith! When you contract a loan for a specified term, write it down...||lending money||Recording and witnesses for a lending contract|
|283||And if one of you entrusts [an asset] to another, let him who is trusted deliver his trust,...||Trust||Rendering the trusts|
Merits and Benefits
According to a hadith cited in Majma' al-bayan, the Prophet (s) referred to Sura al-Baqara as the most virtuous sura in the Qur'an, and al-Kursi Verse as the most virtuous verse in Sura al-Baqara. Its virtue is said to be grounded in its comprehensiveness, and the virtue of al-Kursi Verse is said to be grounded in its monotheistic content.
As to the effects of the sura, Imam al-Sajjad (a) quoted the Prophet (s) as saying that if one recites the first four verses of Sura al-Baqara, al-Kursi Verses and its following two verses, and the last three verses of Sura al-Baqara, he will see no harm in his life and possessions, he will not be approached by the Satan, and he will never forget the Qur'an.
|For the full text, see text:Sura al-Baqara.|
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره بقره in Farsi WikiShia.