Open main menu

WikiShia β

This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Najm; to read its text see text:Sura al-Najm.
Sura al-Najm
al-Tur← →al-Qamar
سوره نجم.jpg
Sura Number 53
Juz' 27
Revelation
Revelation Number 23
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 62
Word Count 359
Letter Count 1432

Sūra al-Najm (Arabic: سورة النجم) is the fifty third sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in the twenty seventh juz'. This sura is one of the four suras which have obligatory sajda and are called 'Aza'im. One of the issues mentioned in this sura is the story of the Ascension. In this sura, God blames polytheists because of worshipping idols and speaks about the Hereafter.

Two of the famous verses of this sura are verses three and four which say that the Prophet (s) does not speak out of his own desire. These verses are referred to as evidence for proving his infallibility. Also, verses eight and nine are famous which describe the distance between the Prophet (s) and God or angel Gabriel within two bows' length. About the merits of recitation of Sura al-Najm, it is narrated that the reciter will become beloved among people.

Contents

Introduction

  • Names

This sura is called al-Najm or "Wa l-Najm" because in its first verse, God has sworn upon "al-najm" (star).[1]

  • Order and Place of Revelation

Sura al-Najm is fifty third sura of the Qur'an in the order of its current compilation and twenty third sura in the order of revelation. It is among Makki suras.[2] Some believe that Sura al-Najm was the first sura the Prophet (s) recited publicly and loudly in Mecca after revealing his invitation to Islam.[3]

  • Number of Verses and Words

Sura al-Najm has sixty two verses, 359 words, and 1432 letters. This sura is among mufassalat suras and its length is about half of hizb.[4]

Obligatory Sajda

This sura is one of the four suras which have obligatory sajda[5] that are called 'Aza'im.[6] In this sura, after hearing or reciting verse sixty two,[7] it is obligatory to perform sajda.[8] Another ruling about these suras which have obligatory sajda is that it is forbidden for a junub person to recite these suras (or the verse which requires performing sajda).[9]

Content

Major topics mentioned in Sura al-Najm:

  • The truth of revelation and the direct contact of the Prophet (s) with angel Gabriel and negating that the Prophet (s) would say anything other than what revealed to him.
  • Mentioning the Prophet's (s) Ascension.
  • Criticism of the polytheists' belief in idols and worshiping angels.
  • Openness of repentance to polytheists and that everyone is responsible for his actions.
  • The hereafter and bringing proofs for it.
  • The painful destiny of previous nations who were stubborn and insisted on their opposition against the truth.[10]
Content of Sura al-Najm[11]
 
 
 
 
Truth of the Prophet's (s) words about the angels not interceding for polytheists
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First topic: verses 1-18
All the words of the Prophet (s) are from God
 
Second topic: verses 19-55
Falsehood of the thought of polytheists about the angels' intercession
 
Third topic: verses 56-62
Truth of the Qur'an regarding disbelievers' punishment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First point: verses 1-4
All the words of the Prophet (s) are divine revelation
 
First point: verses 19-23
Idols are not daughters of God
 
First point: verses 56-58
Only God can draw away punishment from human being
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second point: verses 5-18
The Prophet (s) sees the angel of revelation and learns from him
 
Second point: verses 24-26
Angels' intercession requires God's permission
 
Second point: verses 59-62
Disbelieving and considering the teachings of the Qur'an unimportant about the Judgment Day
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third point: verses 27-30
Calling angels daughters of God is a sign of polytheists' ignorance
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth point: verses 31-32
Reward of human beings is only in the hand of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fifth point: verses 33-41
Everyone is responsible for his actions
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sixth point: verses 42-55
Management of all affairs is in the hand of God

Historical Stories and Reports

In verses seven to eighteen of Sura al-Najm, the story of the Prophet's (s) Ascension is narrated in which, it is mentioned that the Prophet (s) drew near Sidrat al-Muntaha and Jannat al-Ma'wa and saw some of the signs of God. Also, in verses fifty to fifty three, perishing the people of 'Ad, Thamud, and people of Noah and Lot is mentioned.

Famous Verses

The Prophet (s) Only Speaks Out of Revelation

According to Tafsir-i nimuna, that the Prophet (s) does not speak out of his own desire, is not only about the verses of the Qur'an, but it also includes the sunna (speeches and actions);[12] thus, some consider these verses a reason for validity of the Prophet's (s) sunna as a reference.[13] Also, this verse is used to prove the Prophet's (s) infallibility.[14] In Tafsir al-burhan, there are several reports saying that when the Prophet (s) spoke about the position of Imam Ali (a) or his succession, some said that the Prophet (s) spoke about his cousin out of his own desire; thus, the first verses of Sura al-Najm were revealed.[15]

Verses 36 to 41 of Sura al-Najm with verses 38 and 39 in the middle, "no bearer shall bear another's burden, (38) and that nothing belongs to man except what he strives for". Nast'aliq calligraphy by Ghulamhusayn Amirkhani

Distance in Ascension

These verses speak about the story of the Ascension[16] when the Prophet's (s) distance reached within two bows' length or even nearer. Some said that it referred to the distance between the Prophet (s) and angel Gabriel. Some others considered it the distance between the noble Prophet (s) and God in his spiritual intuition.[17]

Reward through Effort

It is mentioned in commentaries that benefiting from intercession of others in the form of forgiveness and charities are actually the results of the person's own actions; because if the person did not become a believer, he would not receive any intercession and people would not ask for his forgiveness.[18] Also, it is said that this verse considers the person's efforts required for reward, not reaching conclusion; so, if a person makes good efforts, but he does not reach the final conclusion, still God will reward him.[19] In the discussion on determination and free will, this verse is referred to for proving the free will and freedom of human's choice.[20]

Merits and Benefits

About the merits of recitation of Sura al-Najm, it is mentioned in hadiths that the reciter will become beloved among people;[21] and whoever recites Sura al-Najm every day or every night, will live among people honorably and will be beloved by them.[22]

Notes

  1. Maʿrifat, al-Tamhīd fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 313.
  2. Maʿrifat, al-Tamhīd fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 237.
  3. Makārim Shīrāzī, Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 4, p. 575.
  4. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1253.
  5. Suyūṭī, al-Durr al-manthūr, vol. 6, p. 424.
  6. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1451.
  7. So prostrate yourselves to Allah and worship Him!
  8. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, vol. 1, p. 615-617.
  9. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, vol. 1, p. 276.
  10. Makārim Shīrāzī, Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 4, p. 575-576.
  11. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  12. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 22, p. 481.
  13. Shahābī, Adwār-i fiqh, vol. 1, p. 404.
  14. Subḥānī, Mafāhīm al-Qurʾān, vol. 5, p. 39.
  15. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 187-191.
  16. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 23, p. 381.
  17. Makārim Shīrāzī, Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 4, p. 579.
  18. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 75.
  19. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 22, p. 550.
  20. Subḥānī, "Ikhtīyār wa āzādī", p. 21.
  21. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 185.
  22. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 23, p. 370.

References

  • Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil. Edited by Banī Hāshimī. Third edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1378 Sh.
  • Baḥrānī, Sayyid Hāshim b. Sulaymān. Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Muʾssisat Biʿthat, 1389 Sh.
  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna. Edited by Aḥmad ʿAlī Bābāyī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1382 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1371 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Al-Tamhīd fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān. Qom: Muʾassisa-yi al-Tamhīd, 1388 Sh.
  • Shahābī, Maḥmūd. Adwār-i fiqh. Tehran: Wizārat-i Farhang wa Irshād-i Islāmī, 1366 Sh.
  • Subḥānī, Jaʿfar. Mafāhīm al-Qurʾān. Qom: Muʾassisat Imām al-Ṣādiq (a), 1427 AH.
  • Subḥānī, Jaʿfar. 1362 Sh. "Ikhtīyār wa āzādī." Majalla-yi Maktab-i Islām 11:18-21.
  • Suyūṭī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr al-. Al-Durr al-manthūr fī tafsīr al-maʾthūr. Qom: Kitābkhāna-yi Āyatollāh Marʿashī al-Najafī, 1404 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Mūhammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Translated to Farsi by Mūsawī Hamidānī. Fifth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1374 Sh.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī. Tehran: Farāhānī, [n.d].