Umm Kulthum bt. al-Imam 'Ali (a)

Umm Kulthum bt. al-Imam 'Ali
Daughter of Imam Ali (a)
سوريه قبرستان باب الصغير-حرم ام كلثوم بنت علي ع و سكينه بنت حسين ع.jpg
Bab al-Saghir cemetery, Damascus
Full Name Umm Kulthum bt. 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a)
Well-known As Umm Kulthum Kubra, Zaynab Sughra
Religious Affiliation Twelver Shi'a
Lineage Banu Hashim
Well-known Relatives Imam Ali (a), Lady Fatima (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a)
Birth 6/627
Place of Birth Medina
Burial Place Bab al-Saghir cemetery, Damascus
Era Early Islam
Known for Daughter of Imam Ali (a)
Activities Present at the Battle of Karbala

Umm Kulthūm Kubrā bt. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: اُمّ کُلثُوم کُبری بنت عَليّ بن اَبيطالِب بن عَبدالمُطَّلِب) is the fourth child of Imam 'Ali (a) and Lady Fatima (a), after Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a) and Zaynab al-Kubra. According to historical sources, she married to 'Umar b. al-Khattab, the second Caliph. Some scholars believe that she attended in the Battle of Karbala and her sermons have been quoted in Maqtal books (narrative accounts of the Battle of Karbala). The ambiguity surrounding her character and denial or approval of some events happening to her is mostly because there were three or four women with the same name and kunya in the family of Imam 'Ali (a); Umm Kulthum Kubra who was the daughter of Lady Fatima (a), Umm Kulthum Wusta who was the wife of Muslim b. 'Aqil, Umm Kulthum Sughra (Nafisa), and Zaynab Sughra whose Kunya was Umm Kulthum.

Birth and lineage

Historians have different opinions about Umm Kulthum's date of birth. However, both Shi'as and Sunnis agree that 'Ali (a) and Fatima (a) had a daughter called Umm Kulthum.[1]

It is recorded in the history that she was born in 6/627.[2] Some historians believe that she was born at the time of the Prophet (s) or before he (s) passed away.[3] Another disagreement between Shi'as and Sunnis is that Shi'a scholars believe that she was younger than Zaynab (a)[4] while Sunnis believe that she was the third child of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and older than Zaynab (a).

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
al-Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
Idris
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
 
Musa
 
 
 
 
Fatima
 
 
 
Hakima
 
 
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari
 
 
Husayn
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 

[5]

Kunyas and Titles

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid has mentioned the names of Imam Ali's (a) children and introduced her as Zaynab Sughra whose kunya was Umm Kulthum.[6] This Kunya was given to her by the Prophet (s) because of her similarity to her aunt, Umm Kulthum (the Prophet's (s) daughter).[7] In many Shi'a and Sunni sources, she is called Umm Kulthum Kubra.

Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin says, "The daughters of Imam 'Ali (a) whose names or Kunyas are Umm Kulthum have been three or four".

  1. Umm Kulthum Kubra, the daughter of Lady Fatima (a)
  2. Umm Kulthum Wusta, the wife of Muslim b. 'Aqil
  3. Umm Kulthum Sughra
  4. Zaynab Sughra whose kunya is Umm Kulthum

He continues that if two last ones be the same, so there were three Umm Kulthum, otherwise there were four.[8] In some other sources, the name of Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Ali (a) and Fatima (a) is mentioned as "Ruqayya Kubra" and the name of Umm Kulthum Sughra is mentioned as "Nafisa".[9]

Husband and Children

According to the history, Umm Kulthum first married 'Umar b. al-Khattab. After his death, she married 'Uwn b. Ja'far b. Abi Talib, her cousin. When he passed away, she married his brother, Muhammad. After Muhammad's death, she married another brother of them, 'Abd al-Allah.[10] Mas'udi believes that she had no children.[11] Some others mention Zayd and Ruqayya as her children whose father was 'Umar.[12] Ibn 'Inaba counts Hamida as the daughter of Muslim b. 'Aqil whose mother was Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a).[13] Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin says, "It means that Muslim b. 'Aqil married his cousin, Umm Kulthum. But there is no evidence that he married Umm Kulthum Kubra, so he might has married Umm Kulthum Wusta."[14]

Marriage to 'Umar b. al-Khattab

According to historical and hadith references, and also Shi'a and Sunnite life story books, Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), married 'Umar, the second Caliph.[15] They married in Dhu al-Qa'da, 17/638.[16]

In Karbala

Some Maqtal books (narrative accounts of the Battle of Karbala) have reported the attendance of Umm Kulthum in the Battle of Karbala. In these books, she has been frequently mentioned beside Zaynab (a) and her sufferings have been quoted. Majlisi says, "After Imam's martyrdom, when the tents were burned, the earrings of Umm Kulthum, Husayn's (a) sister, were taken out forcibly".[17] She was a narrator of the Event of 'Ashura and preached a sermon in the meeting held by Ibn Ziyad in Kufa. In his book, Ibn Tayfur has quoted a sermon from Umm Kulthum which was delivered in Kufa when the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet (s) were held captive.[18] Also 'Allama Majlisi has quoted poems and speeches of Umm Kulthum in the meeting held by Ibn Ziyad.[19]

On the contrary, some other sources indicate that Umm Kulthum who attended the Battle of Karbala was not the daughter of Lady Fatima (a).[20] Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin says, "Imam 'Ali (a) had two daughters called Umm Kulthum, one of them was Umm Kulthum Kubra, the daughter of Lady Fatima (a), who passed away before the Battle of Karbala, and the other one, whose mother was a handmaiden, attended the Battle of Karbala and delivered a sermon in Kufa. She was the wife of Muslim b. 'Aqil".[21]

Narrator of Hadiths

Some hadiths have been quoted from Umm Kulthum in Shi'a sources. Mamaqani has counted her as a narrator of hadiths and says:

"She was a great woman and I know her a reliable source"[22].

Most of hadiths narrated by Umm Kulthum are about the sufferings of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Prophet (s).

Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah (a)

When Lady Fatima (a) passed away, Umm Kulthum, wearing a veil and shedding tears, told the Prophet (s), "O father! O the Messenger of Allah! Indeed, the time now is like when you passed away! We will have no chance to visit our mother again"[23].

Martyrdom of Imam 'Ali (a)

'Allama Majlisi writes:

Umm Kulthum said, "At the night of 19 Ramadan, I prepared two loafs of barley bread, some milk, and some salt for my father to break the fasting. After saying prayers, he (a) attended the food spread. He (a) took one look at his food and cried loudly. He (a) then said, "… O my dear daughter! If you do not take one of these two foods, swear by God, I will eat nothing …." And he (a) ate a loaf of bread and some salt"[24].

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid writes:

'Ali (a) stayed awake all the night before the day he (a) was martyred. Umm Kulthum asked him the reason. He (a) said, "I will be killed in the morning". Umm Kulthum prevented him from going to Masjid. But Imam (a) said, "Death is inevitable" and left home[25].

When Imam 'Ali (a) was martyred, she told Ibn Muljam while she was crying,

"Woe on you! Allah abased you in this world and the hereafter and you will always remain in the everlasting fire of the hell"[26].

Abd al-Karim b. Ahmad b. Tawus al-Hilli has quoted a hadith from al-Shaykh al-Saduq in which Umm Kultum talks about Imam Ali's (a) advice to his children and his funeral and burial ceremony. In one part of this hadith we read:

… Umm Kulthum said, "At the burial ceremony, the grave was split. I do not know whether my lord (father) was buried in the ground or he (a) ascended to the sky. Suddenly, I heard a voice condoling with us and saying, "May God help you in mourning for the vicegerent and proof of God upon His creation"[27].

Event of 'Ashura and the Succeeding Events

  1. Sayyid b. Tawus says:

"When Husayn (a) bade his family a final farewell, Umm Kulthum cried out, "O Aba 'Abd Allah! Woe on us after you!" Then, Imam (a) consoled her, Zaynab (a), and Rabab".[28]

  1. When the Ahl al-Bayt (a) were held captive and the people of Kufa brought food for children, Umm Kulthum cried out, "O people of Kufa! It is forbidden to give alms to the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet (s)"[29].
  2. There is a tradition according to which when the caravan of captives entered Syria, Umm Kulthum wanted Shimr to move the heads of martyrs away so that people would be attracted to them and would look at the captives less[30].

Demise

There are different opinions concerning when and how Umm Kulthum passed away.

  1. According to many sources, her son, Zayd, and she passed away simultaneously and one prayer was recited on their bodies.[31]
  2. Some scholars believe that they passed away about 50/670 at the time of Mu'awiya and government of Sa'id b. 'As.[32]
  3. Some others believe that they passed away at the time of 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan (73/692 - 86/705).[33]
  4. Miqrizi writes that she passed away when she was the wife of 'Uwn b. Ja'far.[34]
  5. Ibn 'Abd al-Barr believes that she passed away at the time of Imam al-Hasan (a).[35]
  6. Ibn Tayfur believes that she passed away after 61/680 and the Battle of Karbala.[36]

It is said that Umm Kulthum and her son, Zayd, passed away because of illness[37] or being poisoned.[38]

Grave

the tomb of Umm Kulthum, Damascus, Syria

'Imad al-Din Tabari says,

"It has been narrated that Umm Kulthum, Imam Husayn's (a) sister, passed away in Syria[39].

In his travel book, Ibn Battuta has written,

"About one parasang to Syria, there is the tomb of Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and Lady Fatima (a)"[40].

Yaqut Hamawi writes,

"Umm Kulthum's tomb is in Rawiya (Damascus)"[41].

Ibn 'Asakir says,

"The tomb which is in Rawiya (Damascus) is not Umm Kulthum's, the daughter of Lady Fatima (a) … she passed away in Medina and was buried in Baqi' cemetery"[42].

Also some others believe that this tomb belongs to Zaynab (a), the daughter of 'Ali (a) and Fatima (a), whose kunya was Umm Kulthum[43].

See also

Notes

  1. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 354; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 463; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 4, p. 118.
  2. Dhahabī, Siyar iʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 3, p. 500.
  3. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 8, p. 464. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1954.
  4. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 354; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Vol. 3, p. 89.
  5. Dhahabī, Siyar iʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 3, p. 500; Ibn Isḥāq, Sīra Ibn Isḥāq, p. 247.
  6. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 354.
  7. Qummī, al-Kunā wa l-alqāb, vol. 1, p. 228.
  8. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 484.
  9. ʿAlawī, al-Mujdī, p. 17-18; Zubaydī, Tāj al-ʿarūs, vol. 15, p. 813.
  10. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 462.
  11. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 1, p. 299.
  12. Bilādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, p. 190; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīna-yi Dimashq, vol. 19, p. 482.
  13. Ibn ʿInaba, Umdat al-ṭālib, p. 32.
  14. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 484.
  15. Bilādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, p. 190; Kūlaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 5, p. 346; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 8, p. 161; Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā, vol. 1, p. 397.
  16. Nuwayrī, Nihāyat al-arab, vol. 19, p. 347.
  17. Majlisī, Biḥar al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 60.
  18. Ibn Ṭayfūr, Balāghāt al-nisāʾ, p. 23.
  19. Majlisī, Biḥar al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 112-115.
  20. Birrī, al-Jawhara fī nisab al-imām ʿAlī, p. 45.
  21. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 1, p. 327; vol. 3, p. 484.
  22. Māmaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 3, p. 73.
  23. Niyshābūrī, Rawḍat al-wāʿiẓīn, p. 152.
  24. Majlisī, Biḥar al-anwār, vol. 42, p. 276-278.
  25. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 16.
  26. Majlisī, Biḥar al-anwār, vol. 42, p. 289.
  27. Ibn Ṭāwūs al-Ḥillī, Farḥat al-gharā, p. 63-64.
  28. Ibn Ṭāwūs, Luhūf, p. 82.
  29. Majlisī, Biḥar al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 114.
  30. Ibn Ṭāwūs, Luhūf, p. 174.
  31. Zubaydī, Tāj al-ʿarūs, vol. 15, p. 813.
  32. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 485.
  33. Ṣanʿānī, al-Muṣannaf, vol. 6, p. 164.
  34. Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʾ, vol. 5, p. 370.
  35. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1956.
  36. Ibn Ṭayfūr, Balāghāt al-nisāʾ, p. 23-24.
  37. Ibn Ḥabīb al-Baghdādī, al-Munammaq, p. 312.
  38. Ṣanʿānī, al-Muṣannaf, vol. 6, p. 164.
  39. Ṭabarī, Kāmil al-Bahāyī, vol. 2, p. 371.
  40. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, al-Riḥla, vol. 1, p. 113.
  41. Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 3, p. 20.
  42. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīna-yi Dimashq, vol. 2, p. 309.
  43. Bīṭār, Ḥilyat al-Bashar. Vol. 3, p. 1283.

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