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Umm al-Banin
Wife of Imam Ali (a)
قبرحضرت ام البنين.jpg
Burial place, al-Baqi' Cemetery, Medina
Full Name Fatima bt. Hizam
Well-known As Umm al-Banin
Religious Affiliation Twelver Shi'a
Lineage Banu Kilab
Well-known Relatives Imam Ali (a), 'Abbas
Place of Birth Medina
Place of Residence Medina
Burial Place Al-Baqi' Cemetery, Medina
Era Early Islam
Known for Wife of Imam Ali (a), Mother of al-'Abbas b. Ali
Timeline of the Battle of Karbala
60/680
Rajab 15 Death of Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan
Rajab 28 Departure of Imam al-Husayn b. 'Ali (a) from Medina.
Sha'ban 3 Arrival of Imam al-Husayn (a) to Mecca.
Ramadan 10 Arrival of Kufiyans' first letter to Imam (a)
Ramadan 12 Arrival of 150 letters from Kufa
Ramadan 14 Arrival of the letter from leaders of Kufa
Ramadan 15 Departure of Muslim b. 'Aqil from Mecca toward Kufa.
Shawwal 5 Arrival of Muslim b. 'Aqil to Kufa.
Dhu l-Hijja 8 Departure of Imam al-Husayn (a) form Mecca
Dhu l-Hijja 8 Uprising of Muslim b. 'Aqil in Kufa
Dhu l-Hijja 9 Martyrdom of Muslim b. 'Aqil
61/680
Muharram 1 Asking for help of 'Ubayd Allah b. al-Hurr al-Ju'fi and 'Amr b. Qays in Banu Maqatil
Muharram 2 Arrival of Imam (a) to Karbala
Muharram 3 Arrival of 'Umar b. Sa'd with 4,000 people to Karbala
Muharram 6 Habib b. Muzahir's asking for help of Banu Asad
Muharram 7 Banding of water by 'Umar b. Sa'd
Muharram 7 Muslim b. 'Awsaja al-Asadi joined Imam (a)
Muharram 9 Arrival of Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan to Karbala
Muharram 9 Shimr's Safe conduct for Umm al-Banin's children
Muharram 9 Announcing of the Battle by 'Umar b. Sa'd and Imam's (a) asking for a delay
Muharram 10 Events of Ashura
Muharram 11 Moving the captives towards Kufa
Muharram 11 Burial of martyrs by Banu Asad
Muharram 12 Burial of a few member of martyrs
Muharram 13 Arrival of captives to Kufa
Muharram 19 Moving the captives from Kufa towards Syria
Safar 1 Arrival of the captives to Syria
Safar 20 Arba'in
Safar 20 Return of Ahl al-Bayt (a) to Karbala
Safar 20 Moving from Karbala toward Medina (in some accounts)

Fāṭima bt. Ḥizām (Arabic: فاطمة بنت حزام) well-known as Umm al-Banīn (Arabic: أمّ البَنین) is one of the wives of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and is one of the most honorable Shi'a personalities. She is the mother of 'Abbas and three other sons, 'Abd Allah, Ja'far and 'Uthman all of whom were martyred on the Event of 'Ashura. Because she had four sons, she was called as Umm al-Banin (mother of the sons). After the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a), Umm al-Banin mourned the Imam (a) and her children so sorrowfully that even the enemies of Ahl al-Bayt (a) accompanied her. According to Shi'a point of view, her mourning for Imam al-Husayn (a) before mourning for her children and her respect toward the children of the Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) indicate that she had a high level of religious true knowledge. Her tomb in al-Baqi' is a ziyara site for Shi'a.

Contents

Lineage and Demise

Umm al-Banin's father was Abu l-Majl Hizam b. Khalid from the tribe of Banu Kilab[1] and her mother was Layla or Thamama bt. Suhayl b. 'Amir b. Malik.[2]

The exact date of her demise is unknown. However, her demise is marked on Jumada II 13. She is buried in al-Baqi' Cemetery near other eminent personalities such as: Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Sajjad (a), Imam al-Baqir (a), and Imam al-Sadiq (a).

Marriage with Imam 'Ali (a)

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Mariya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
al-Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
Ibrahim
 
Idris
 
 
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
Musa
 
Fatima
 
Hakima
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-'Askari
 
Husayn
 
Muhammad
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 

It has been narrated that after the demise of Fatima al-Zahra (a) in 11/632 , Imam 'Ali (a) consulted with his brother -'Aqil, who was an expert in Arab genealogy, about choosing a wife with a good lineage who will give birth to courageous and brave children. 'Aqil suggested Fatima bt. Hizam b. Khalid and added that among Arab, no one is more courageous than the men of Banu Kilab. Thus, Imam 'Ali (a) married her.[3]

She gave birth to four sons –'Abbas (a), 'Abd Allah, Ja'far and 'Uthman. Her 4 sons were renowned for their courage and bravery. So, she was called Umm al-Banin (mother of the sons). All of her sons were martyred fighting along with Imam al-Husayn (a), in Karbala.[4]

It is quoted that a while after the marriage, she suggested Imam 'Ali (a) to call her Umm al-Banin instead of Fatima, which was her original name, because the children of Fatima al-Zahra (a) would remember their mother and the sad memories by hearing "Fatima".

After the Event of Karbala

Umm al-Banin was not present in Karbala. When the caravan of the Captives of Karbala arrived in Medina, someone informed her about the martyrdom of her sons; but she asked: "Tell me about al-Husayn (a)." When she heard that Imam al-Husayn (a) was martyred, she said: "I wish my children and everything in the world were ransom for al-Husayn (a) and he would have survived. "These words shows her great loyalty toward Ahl al-Bayt (a) and especially Imam al-Husayn (a).[5]

Zaynab (a) and Umm al-Banin

It's quoted that when Zaynab (a) arrived in Medina, she visited Umm al-Banin and expressed her condolence for the martyrdom of her children.

Mourning for Children

After that she received the news of her sons' martyrdom, she went to al-Baqi' Cemetery every day with her grandson, 'Ubayd Allah (son of 'Abbas). she recited the lament that she had composed for her sons and cried sorrowfully. People of Medina gathered around her and cried along with her. It is even said that Marwan b. Hakam also cried with them.[6] She recited this lament which she had composed for 'Abbas:

"O, he who saw 'Abbas attacking a multitude of enemy and the sons of 'Ali (a) were backing him up like brave lions. I was told that my son was hit on the head while his hands were cut. Woe unto me! my son had lowered his head [that] he was hit on the head. If his sword was in his hand, no one would have dared to approach him."[7]

Words of Scholars

Zayn al-Din al-'Amili, known as al-Shahid al-Thani says, "Umm al-Banin is a virtuous lady. She had a great affection and loyalty toward the family of the Prophet (s) and devoted her life to serve them. In reverse, the household of the Prophet considered an elite status for her and honoured her. They visited her on the days of Eid (Islamic holidays) as a sign of respect."

Sayyid Mahmud Shahrudi (d. Sha'ban 17, 1394/September 5, 1974) said, "When I face troubles, I recite Salawat hundred times for Abu l-Fadl al-'Abbas's mother -Umm al-Banin- and after that my problem is solved."

Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin writes in his book A'yan al-Shi'a, "Umm al-Banin was an eloquent poet, from a noble and brave family."[8]

Al-Muqarram says, "Umm al-Banin is counted among the virtuous ladies. She knew the right of Ahl al-Bayt (a) very well and love them honestly. Reversely, she had an elite statue among them."[9]

'Ali Muhammad 'Ali al-Dukhayl, a contemporary Arab writer, writes describing this great lady, "The greatness of this woman becomes obvious by this event: when she heard the news of martyrdom of her sons, she did not pay attention to it, but asked about Imam al-Husayn (a). It is as if, Imam al-Husayn (a) is her son not her own sons."[10]

Baqir Sharif al-Qurashi, the author of the book 'Abbas b. Ali, ra'id al-karama writes about the virtues of Umm al-Banin, "No one has seen a woman like this pure lady (Umm al-Banin) in the history who would like her fellow wife's children honestly and care about them more [than her children]."

Notes

  1. al-Tabari, al-Tarikh, vol.4 p.118
  2. Ibn 'Inaba, 'Umda l-talib, p.356
  3. Ibn 'Inaba, 'Umdat al-talib, p.357
  4. Ibn 'Inaba, 'Umdat al-talib, p.356; Isfahani, Maqatil al-talibiyyin, p.82-84;
  5. Hassun, A'lam al-nisa' al-mu'minat, p.496-497
  6. Isfahani, Maqatil al-talibiyyin, p.85
  7. Shubbar, Adab al-taff, vol.1 p.72
  8. Amin, A'yan al-shi'a, vol.8 p.389
  9. al-Dukhayl, al-'Abbas, p.18
  10. al-Dukhayl, al-'Abbas, p.18

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from ام البنین
  • Amin, Sayyid Muhsin al-. A'yan al-shi'a.
  • Hassun, Muhammad al-. A'lam al-nisa' al-mu'minat. Tehran: 1411
  • Ibn 'Inaba. 'Umda l-talib. Najaf: 1381/1961
  • Isfahani, Abu l-Faraj al-. Maqatil al-talibiyyin. Cairo: 1368/1949
  • Dukhayl, 'Ali Muhammad 'Ali al-. Al-'Abbas. Beirut: Mu'assisa Ahl al-Bayt, 1401
  • Shubbar, Jawad al-. Adab al-taff. Beirut: Dar al-Murtada.
  • Tabari, Jarir al-. Tarikh. Urumiyya: Maktaba Urumiyya