Zaynab bt. Jahsh
- For other people named Zaynab, see Zaynab (disambiguation).
|Zaynab bt. Jahsh|
Wife of the Prophet (s)
|Full Name||Barra bt. Jahsh|
|Well-known As||Umm al-Mu'minin|
|Lineage||Asad b. Khuzayma|
|Well-known Relatives||The Prophet (s) (husband), Zayd b. Haritha (former husband)|
|Birth||About 33 years before Hijra/About 589-90|
|Place of Birth||Mecca|
|Place of Residence||Mecca, Medina|
|Burial Place||Al-Baqi' cemetery|
|Activities||Migration to Medina, participating in the Battle of Hunayn|
Date of Marriage
(before Hijra/before 622)
Zaynab bt. Jaḥsh (Arabic: زینب بنت جحش) (d. 20/641) is one of the Prophet Muhammad's (s) wife. First, she married Zayd b. Haritha, the Prophet's (s) adopted son, but soon they separated. Then the Prophet (s) married her to break the Ignorance tradition which considered the adopted children as the biological ones.
Name and Lineage
Her father was Jahsh b. Ri'ab from Ghanm, a clan from Asad b. Khuzayma tribe. After that he emigrated to Mecca, he allied with Bani Umayya. Her mother was Umayma, 'Abd al-Muttalib's daughter and the Prophet's paternal aunt.
At first she was called Barra; however, after her marriage to the Prophet (s), he changed her name to Zaynab.
There is no exact information about her birthdate. However, as she passed away in 20/641, during the caliphate of 'Umar, and most biographers said that she lived 53 years, she was probably born 33 years before Hijra (around 589-90 CE). Ibn Hajar mentioned that she was 50 when she passed away and also added that some have reported that she was 53.
Ibn Sa'd has quoted a report from al-Waqidi that she was 35 when she married the Prophet (s); this report indicates that she was born 29 or 30 years before Hijra.
Marriage to Zayd
After Zaynab emigrated to Medina, the Prophet (s) asked her to marry Zayd. Before this proposal, Zaynab thought the Prophet (s) himself wants to marry; when she realized that he proposed her for Zayd, she rejected. However, when she saw the Prophet (s) wants her to get married to Zayd, she accepted.
Divorce from Zayd
Zaynab and Zayd had arguments most of the times. Zayd complained about her to the Prophet (s). The Prophet (s) always advised him to be patient and tolerate his wife. However, they eventually got divorced. According to biographers and historians, they got divorced after the Battle of Banu l-Mustaliq in Sa'ban of 5/January 627.
Marriage to the Prophet (s)
By God's order and for breaking the Ignorance time tradition, which considered the adopted children as the biological ones, the Prophet (s) married Zaynab. It is reported that Zaynab offered herself to the Prophet (s) without mahr (dowry).
Later she took pride in her superiority over the Prophet's wives as her marriage to the Prophet (s) was decreed in the heavens. After the marriage, the Prophet (s) held a wedding feat in which the gusts were severed mutton and bread.
It is said that the Prophet's (s) marriage to Zaynab took place in early Dhu l-Qa'da, 5/April, 627 and Zaynab was 35 years old at that time.
Distortion of the Story
By gossiping about this marriage, hypocrites and polytheists affronted the Prophet (s). In order to damage the Prophet's reputation, some hypocrites gossiped that the Prophet's desire for Zaynab caused the separation between Zayd and her. They narrated various incoherent and sometimes contradictory stories in this regard. Some exegetes of the Qur'an mentioned these stories in their commentaries on the 37th verse of Quran 33 [Note 2].
Studying the accounts about this event indicates that the first/seventh century exegetes, most probably made up these accounts based on the story of David and Uriya in the Old Testament. Ibn Hajar pointed that some narrators of these accounts are unreliable. However, Bosworth has explained the story of the Prophet's marriage to Zaynab based on these biased accounts.
Explained by distorted narrations, the story of the Prophet's marriage to Zaynab was an inseparable part of polemical Christian texts from early times. Most probably, the first Christian who used this story to criticize the Prophet (s) was John Damascene in his book The fountain of Knowledge after which it became an inseparable part of polemical Christian literature against Islam.
This story is mentioned in verses 36-39 of Quran 33. Getting married to a cousin is a lawful act in Islam, so the Prophet's marriage to his aunt's daughter had no problem. However, about what has been reported that the Prophet (s) was interested in her beauty; it must be said that the Prophet (a) knew that she was a beautiful, well-mannered woman before her marriage to Zayd b. Haritha; though he asked her to marry Zayd b. Haritha.
Revelation of Hijab Verses
Verse 53 of Quran 33 -known as hijab verse- is revealed due to the troubles made by some companions of the Prophet (s) after his marriage to Zaynab.[Note 3] Ibn Sa'd and al-Tabarani have narrated various comprehensive reports in their exegeses of the 58th and 59th verse of Sura al-Ahzab[Note 4]. Likewise, other exegetes mentioned this point in explanation of the same verses.
During 'Umar's Caliphate
After that 'Umar founded the diwan (treasury), he allocated an annuity of 12,000 dirhams to her, as he did for some other wives of the Prophet (s). However, Zaynab only received that annuity for one year and she passed away in the following one. Zaynab believed that taking this money was a sedition and she had asked God to help her escaping from taking the annuity.
She was so generous that no dirham and dinar was left from her after her demise; as she had given all of them to the poor.
Even the Prophet (s) referred to this positive attribute of hers by a subtle irony and told his other wives "the fastest of you to join me after my death is the one who is more generous than the others."
Many historians have reported her story, in which she divided all her annuity of 12000 dirhams between orphans, widows and the poor in just a few moments.
Aisha said that she cared for orphans and widows and no one was more devout, pious, honest, observant about the members of her family and almsgiver than her.
When 'Umar behaved aggressively towards Zaynab, the Prophet (s) told him, "Be aware that Zaynab is Awwah" Awwah is an attribute of the prophet Ibrahim (a) mentioned in the Qur'an which means very humble before God and very weeper for His sake.
According to a hadith al-Tabari has narrated from the faqihs of Hijaz, the Prophet (s) passed away in the Zaynab's house.
Ibn Sa'd and al-Dhahabi narrated that 'Umar banned men who were not her mahrams from participation in her funeral procession (carrying the dead body to burial place) to preserve her dignity as they would see the shape of her body. However, when Asma' bt. 'Umays informed him that they have made a coffin for her and put her body in it, he allowed the public to participate in her funeral.
'Umar walked before her coffin and said, "What a nice cover, keeps the women bodies after their death out of men's sight."
Putting the dead body in coffin for funeral procession was not common in Hijaz at that time, rather they would carry the body on a bier. This way the shape of the dead body was easily noticed as it was only covered by Kafan (shroud). For the first time Asma' bt. 'Umays, who had seen coffins in her home country, Abyssinia, made one for Lady Fatima (a), the Prophet's daughter; however, as Fatima (a) was buried in secret, the first public Tashyi' with coffin was that of Zaynab bt. Jahsh.
Zaynab was buried in al-Baqi' Cemetery near the house of 'Aqil and house of Muhammad al-Hanafiyya. Some of her nephews and Usama b. Zayd, who all were her mahrams, put her in her grave and buried her.
On the burial day of Zaynab the weather was very hot that 'Umar ordered to set up a tent over her grave. It is said that it was the first tent set up on a grave in Islam.
Her only bequest was a house, which later, during the reign of al-Walid b. 'Abd al-Malik, was bought from heirs by 50,000 dirhams for al-Masjid al-Nabawi development project.
- A faithful man or woman may not, when Allah and His Apostle have decided on a matter, have any option in their matter, and whoever disobeys Allah and His Apostle has certainly strayed into manifest error. (Quran 33:36)
- When you said to him whom Allah had blessed, and whom you [too] had blessed, ‘Retain your wife for yourself, and be wary of Allah,' and you had hidden in your heart what Allah was to divulge, and you feared the people though Allah is worthier that you should fear Him, so when Zayd had got through with her, We wedded her to you, so that there may be no blame on the faithful in respect of the wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have got through with them, and Allah's command is bound to be fulfilled. (Quran 33:37)
- O you who have faith! Do not enter the Prophet’s houses unless permission is granted you for a meal, without waiting for it to be readied. But enter when you are invited, and disperse when you have taken your meal, without settling down to chat. Indeed such conduct torments the Prophet, and he is ashamed of [asking] you [to leave]; but Allah is not ashamed of [expressing] the truth. And when you ask anything of [his] womenfolk, ask it from them from behind a curtain. That is more chaste for your hearts and their hearts. You may not torment the Apostle of Allah, nor may you ever marry his wives after him. Indeed that would be a grave [matter] with Allah. (Quran 33:53)
- Those who torment faithful men and women undeservedly, certainly bear the guilt of slander and flagrant sin. (58) O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the faithful to draw closely over themselves their chadors [when going out]. That makes it likely for them to be recognized and not be troubled, and Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful. (Quran 33:58-59)
- The material for this article is mainly taken from زینب دختر جحش in Farsi Wikishia.